1320s

The 1320s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1320, and ended on December 31, 1329.

Events

1320

January – March

April – June

July – September

October – December

1321

January – March

  • January 19 – King Edward II of England appoints the Archbishop of York; the Bishops of Carlisle, Worcester and Winchester; the Earls of Pembroke, Hereford and Badlesmere; and six other people to negotiate with Scotland for a final peace treaty or for an extension of the Pembroke treaty of 1319 before its expiration on Christmas Day.
  • January 20 – a commission is appointed by the English Parliament to inquire about illegal confederacies in Wales against the King.
  • January 30 – The Welsh Earls of Hereford, Arundel and Surrey, and 26 other people are forbidden from attending any meetings to discuss matters affecting King Edward II.
  • February 10 – By papal verdict announced in the Polish town of Brześć, the Teutonic Knights are ordered to return the coastal region of Gdańsk Pomerania to Poland, having annexed and occupied it since 1308. The Teutonic Order appeals the judgment and continues fighting against Poland, with a new Polish–Teutonic War breaking out soon afterward.
  • March 22 – The first Genkō era begins in Japan after the end of the Gen'ō era.

April – June

  • April 8 – In the Delhi Sultanate of India, European Dominican missionaries who had accompanied Jordan de Savarec are killed while stranded on Salsette Island. Jordan is able to escape and continue his ministry.
  • April 12 – Sweden's governing council votes to bar foreigners from the royal palace, and to request that the Norwegian council admonish the regent Ingeborg to avoid taking advice from foreigners when making decisions. Ingeborg, who was serving as regent for her minor son, King Magnus, ruler of both Sweden and Norway, had become infamous for making decisions without consultation from the councils of either of the kingdoms.
  • April 14 – Prince Wenceslaus of Płock allies with the Teutonic Knights of Poland and signs an agreement at the city of Golub, pledging to prevent Lithuanian troops to pass through his principality.
  • April 19 – On Easter Sunday, civil war erupts in Byzantium as Andronikos Palaiologos begins a rebellion against his grandfather, the Byzantine Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos. The 24-year-old Andronikos is joined by Theodore Synadenos and John Kantakouzenos in the rebellion.
  • May 4 – The German play Ludus de decem virginibus, a dramatization of the New Testament Parable of the Ten Virgins, is first performed.
  • May 5Wars of the Rügen Succession: Dukes Otto I of Pomerania, Vartislav IV of Pomerania-Wolgast and Barnim III of Pomerania-Stettin reach a mutual inheritance contract with Vitslav III of Rügen.
  • May 8 – In Egypt's Mamluk Sultanate, a campaign by Muslims starts against the Christian settlements of the Coptic Orthodox Church. Over 60 churches and monasteries are burned.
  • May 16 – Johan de Bosco, a French person diagnosed with leprosy, claims that a fellow leper, "Geraldus" is attempting to spread their disease by contaminating well water, fountains and rivers with bags of powder that will give leprosy to anyone who drinks from the water source. The statement leads to the Leper Scare", and rumors spread in southern France that French Jews are responsible, and prompts an investigation.
  • June 6 – Andronikos II Palaiologos concludes a peace agreement and divides the Byzantine Empire in two. Andronikos III is recognized as co-emperor and receives Thrace and Macedonia. He rewards his followers and gives them towns and regions to administer. Adrianople becomes the new capital.
  • June 9 – Guillaume Agasse, the head of a leper house in Pamiers, claims in a statement to Bishop Jacques Founier that he had learned that more than 50 officials of leper houses had conspired with the Muslim King of Granada to spread leprosy throughout France. Bishop Founier is later elected as Pope Benedict XII.
  • June 21 – King Philip V of France orders that all lepers be imprisoned and interrogated. Those found guilty, often under torture, are to be burnt at the stake.
  • June 23Pope John XXII approves a second inquiry into the matter of the canonization of Thomas Aquinas, with four commissioners to take testimony of witnesses.

July – September

October – December

By place

Byzantine Empire
Western Asia

By topic

Education
Religion
Literature
  • The Kebra Nagast ("The Glory of the Kings") is translated from Arabic to Ge'ez, according to its colophon (approximate date).

1322

January – March

April – June

July – September

October – December

By place

Europe

1323

January – March

April – June

July – September

October – December

  • October 8 – John XXII claims the right to confirm imperial elections and demands that Louis IV of Bavarian surrender his claim to be King of the Romans.
  • October 15 – Hostilities that will lead to the War of Saint-Sardos between England and France begin when King Charles IV of France has a royal sergeant place a stake claiming to claim the French town of Saint-Sardos, territory within the jurisdiction of King Edward II of England (who is also the ruler of the Duchy of Aquitaine in southeastern France).
  • October 16 – Lord Raymond-Bernard, of the Aquitaine town of Montpezat, burns the village of Saint-Sardos to the ground and hangs the French royal sergeant who acted as agent for King Charles IV. France's government blames the England's Baron Basset of the Duchy of Gascony, for hiring Lord Raymond-Bernard.
  • November 12Pope John XXII issues the papal bull Cum inter nonnullos as an addendum to the December 8 bull Ad conditorem canonum, declaring that the assertion of the Fraticelli that Christ and the Apostles possessed no property (and advocated poverty as a Christian virtue) is a heresy.
  • NovemberFlemish Revolt: A uprising in Flanders is caused by both excessive taxation levied by Louis I, and by his pro-French policies. The revolt is led by landowning farmers under Nicolaas Zannekin. Members of the local gentry join and William Deken, mayor of Bruges, becomes the leader of the revolt.
  • December 7 – John of Nottingham and Robert of Coventry, two Englishmen believed by Coventry residents to be expert on necromancy, begin the process of casting a spell to kill King Edward II, Sir Hugh le Despenser of Winchester, as well as the prior of Coventry. John allegedly accepted 20 pounds sterling, and starts his necromancy by making wax figurines of the targets of elimination and then using them for the next six months. The two men will later be prosecuted for sorcery after one of the designated victims allegedly dies after a pin is driven into his figurine.
  • December 21 – In further retaliation by the King Charles of France against King Edward of England for the Saint-Sardos incident, Edward's chief advocate in France's parliament, Pons Tournemire, is arrested and imprisoned in the Grand Châtelet.

1324

January – March

April – June

July – September

October – December

By place

Asia Minor

By topic

Literature
  • Marsilius of Padua writes Defensor pacis ("The Defender of Peace"), a theological treatise arguing against the power of the clergy and in favor of a secular state.
Religion
  • William of Ockham, English Franciscan friar and philosopher, is summoned by John XXII to the papal court at Avignon and imprisoned.

1325

January – March

April – June

July – September

October – December

  • October 10 – King Edward II calls for representatives of the three estates (including the knights representative) to meet at Westminster for a session of the English Parliament, beginning on November 18 to discuss the matter of the failure of his wife, Queen Isabella, to return from France.
  • October 18 – King Edward II sends a letter to Pope John XXII (who is in Avignon in France), expressing deep concern for Queen Isabella's failure to return home from Paris.
  • November 15War of the Bucket: At the Battle of Zappolino in northern Italy, the 7,000-man Ghibelline forces backed by the Holy Roman Empire defeat the much stronger (32,000-men) Guelph army under sent by Pope John XXII near Bologna. After the battle, Ghibelline influence in the region is consolidated.
  • November 21Yuri III Danilovich, Grand Duke of Moscow, is assassinated by Dmitry of Tver, Grand Duke of Vladimir, nicknamed "the Terrible Eyes". Yuri's younger brother, Iván I Danilovich Kalitá, the Grand Duke of Vladimir, inherits Yuri's throne and relocates the spiritual capital of the Russian people to Moscow by directing the Metropolitan Peter to move his episcopal see from Kiev. The decision of both Ivan and Peter to relocate gradually makes Moscow the political center of Russia.
  • December 1 – King Edward I of England makes one final attempt to save his marriage to Queen Isabella, and sends her a letter ordering her to return from France to England immediately, writing that "Oftentimes have we informed you, both before an after the homage, of our great desire to have you with us, and of our grief of heart at your long absence," and adds that he is aware of her affair with Roger Mortimer and that "ceasing from all pretenses, delays and excuses, you come to us with all the haste you can." She declines to come back.
  • December 16Charles, Count of Valois, uncle of King Charles IV of France and heir apparent to the throne, dies at the age of 55 at Nogent-le-Roi, leaving his son Philip as heir to the throne.

1326

January – March

April – June

July – September

Isabella's campaign (green) and the retreat of Edward II to Wales (brown)

October – December

  • October 18 – Isabella of France begins the Siege of Bristol, which is defended by Hugh Despenser the Elder.
  • October 26 – After eight days, the castle of Bristol is captured by Queen Isabella, and Hugh Despenser the elder is taken captive. With Bristol secured, Isabella moves her base of operations to Hereford, near the Welsh border. There, she orders Henry of Lancaster to locate and arrest Edward II.
  • October 27 – The day after his capture at Bristol, Hugh Despenser the Elder, the chief adviser to King Edward II of England, is dressed in his armor and hanged in public. Afterwards, Hugh's body is dismembered, with his head presented to Queen Isabella to show to others among Edward's allies.
  • October 27 – Declaring that they are acting in the name of King Edward and giving as the reason that he is away in France, Queen Isabella and Crown Prince Edward issue a writ summoning the English Parliament to assemble on December 14 at Westminster.
  • November 16 – King Edward II of England is captured at Neath Abbey in Wales and brought to England, where he is imprisoned at Kenilworth Castle in Warwickshire.
  • December 3 – Queen Isabella and Crown Prince Edward, claiming to act on behalf of King Edward II, issue a new writ postponing the opening of the English Parliament from December 14 to January 7. The new parliament will approve the replacement of King Edward II by the Crown Prince as "Keeper of the Realm".

By place

Europe
Middle East

By topic

Education

1327

January – March

April – June

July – September

  • July 4 – During a banquet given by Galeazzo I Visconti in Milan, an attempt is apparently made to poison the guest of honor, Ludwig the Bavarian, newly crowned as King of Italy. Galeazzo's brother, Stefano Visconti, becomes ill after tasting food and drink intended for Ludwig and dies suddenly at home. Stefano's brothers Galeazzo, Giovanni, and Luchino, along with his nephew Azzone Visconti, are all imprisoned on orders of the Holy Roman Emperor based on accusations of a fourth brother, Marco Visconti.
  • August 25Demasq Kaja, Viceroy of Azerbaijan and of Iraq in the Ilkhanate, the Mongol Empire's area of control in the Middle East, is killed in Soltaniyeh after trying to escape arrest on orders of the Ilkhan, Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan. Abu Sa'id had concluded that Demasq's father, Amir Chūpān, was attempting to take over the Ilkhanate.
  • September 21 – Less than a year after his arrest, the former King of England, Edward II, is brutally murdered in Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire.

October – December

By topic

Literature
Trade and Transport

1328

1329

January–December

Date unknown

Significant people

Births

1320

1321

1322

1324

1325

1326

1327

1328

1329

Deaths

1320

1321

1322

1323

1324

1325

1326

1327

1328

1329


This page was last updated at 2023-11-04 12:14 UTC. Update now. View original page.

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