1922 regnal list of Ethiopia

The 1922 regnal list of Ethiopia is an official regnal list that was provided by Ethiopian prince regent Tafari Makonnen (later known as Emperor Haile Selassie), with reference to multiple Ethiopian traditions and legends. The regnal list is partially inspired by older regnal lists of Ethiopia and chronicles that detail the reigns of Ethiopian emperors. The 1922 regnal list however includes many additional names that allude to ancient Nubia, which was known as Aethiopia in ancient times, and various figures from Greek mythology and the Biblical canon that were known to be "Aethiopian".

This list of monarchs of Ethiopia was included in Charles Fernand Rey's book In the Country of the Blue Nile in 1927, and is the longest Ethiopian regnal list published in the Western world, claiming that over 300 monarchs reigned from 4530 BC to 1779 AD. It is the only known regnal list that attempts to provide a timeline of Ethiopian monarchs from the 46th century BC up to modern times without any gaps. However, earlier portions of the regnal list are pseudohistorical, and this has been noted by archaeologists and historians such as E. A. Wallis Budge and Manfred Kropp [de]. The regnal list brings together a wide range of names from older native regnal lists but additionally includes figures from Biblical, Coptic, Ancient Egyptian, Nubian, Ancient Greek and Arab sources.

Despite claims by at least one Ethiopian court historian that the list dates back to ancient times, the list is more likely an early 20th century creation. The earlier sections of the list are clearly inspired by the work of French historian Louis J. Morié, who published a two-volume history of "Ethiopia" (i.e. Nubia and Abyssinia) in 1904. His work drew on then-recent Egyptological research but attempted to combine this with the Biblical canon and writings by ancient Greek authors. This resulted in a pseudohistorical work that was imaginative rather than scientific in its approach to Ethiopian history.

There are different versions of the regnal list that are known to exist, and it is not clear when the first version was written. Ethiopian foreign minister Heruy Wolde Selassie is a contender for the author of the original regnal list. His book Wazema contains a version of the list that begins in 2545 BC instead of 4530 BC. Aleka Taye Gabra Mariam also wrote a version of this regnal list which has some slight differences in names and reign dates. These variations will be mentioned and discussed in this article. The 1922 regnal list published in Rey's book will be referred to as "Tafari's list" in this article to differentiate it from other versions. However, Tafari himself did not claim authorship and instead stated that he had made a copy of an already existing list.

It is important to note that this regnal list contains a great deal of conflation between the history of modern-day Ethiopia and Aethiopia, a term used in ancient times and in some Biblical translations to refer to a generalised region south of Egypt, most commonly in reference to the Kingdom of Kush in modern-day Sudan. As a result, many parts of this article will deal with the history of ancient Sudan and how this became interwoven into the history of the Kingdom of Axum, Abyssinia (which includes modern-day Eritrea) and the modern-day state of Ethiopia. The territory of modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea was known as "Abyssinia" to Europeans until the mid-20th century, and as such this term will be used occasionally in this article to differentiate from 'ancient' Aethiopia (i.e. Nubia).

Background

Tafari Makonnen in 1923.

Charles Fernand Rey's 1927 book In the Country of the Blue Nile included a 13-page appendix with a list of Ethiopian monarchs written by the Prince Regent Tafari Makonnen, who later became the emperor of Ethiopia in 1930. Tafari's list stretches back to 4530 BC and ends in 1779 AD, with dates following the Ethiopian Calendar, which is several years behind the Gregorian calendar. Tafari's cover letter was written in the town of Addis Ababa on the 11th day of Sane, 1914 (Ethiopian Calendar), which was 19 June 1922 on the Gregorian Calendar according to Rey. Rey himself was awarded Commander of the Order of the Star of Ethiopia by Tafari.

Rey revealed in another book he wrote, titled Unconquered Abyssinia, that this list was given to him in 1924 by a court historian who was a "learned old gentleman". This court historian had "caused to be compiled [...] on the instructions of Ras Tafari" a complete list of "rulers of Abyssinia from the beginning of time up to date." Rey noted that the list contained many names "of Egyptian origin", which was a "good illustration" of the difficulties in researching the history of Abyssinia. The court historian claimed that the regnal list had already been compiled prior to the "advent of the Ethiopian dynasty in Egypt" and that the original version had been taken to Egypt and left there, afterwards becoming lost.

Prince Ermias Sahle Selassie, president of the Crown Council of Ethiopia, acknowledged the regnal list in a speech given in 2011 in which he stated:

Ethiopian tradition traces the origins of the dynasty to a king called Ori, who lived about 4470 BC [sic]. While the reality of such a vastly remote provenance must be considered in semi-mythic terms, it remains certain that Ethiopia, also known as the Kingdom of Kush, was already ancient by the time of David and Solomon’s rule in Jerusalem.

The goal of the 1922 regnal list was to showcase the immense longevity of the Ethiopian monarchy. The list does this by providing precise dates over 6,300 years and drawing upon various historical traditions from both within Ethiopia and outside of Ethiopia.

The regnal list names 312 numbered monarchs, although it seems likely that Abreha and Atsbeha were mistakenly counted as one monarch. These rulers are divided into eight dynasties:

  • Tribe of Ori or Aram (4530–3244 BC) (21 monarchs)
  • Tribe of Kam (2713–1985 BC) (24 monarchs)
  • Ag'azyan dynasty of the kingdom of Joctan (1985–982 BC) (52 monarchs) - mistitled "Agdazyan".
  • Dynasty of Menelik I (982 BC–493 AD) (132 or 133 monarchs)
  • Dynasty of Kaleb until Gedajan (493–920) (27 monarchs)
  • Zagwe dynasty (920–1253) (11 monarchs)
  • Solomonic dynasty (1253–1555) (26 monarchs) and its Gondarian branch (1555–1779) (18 monarchs)

In addition to the above, there is a so-called "Israelitish" dynasty with 8 unnumbered kings from the time of Zagwe rule who did not ascend to the throne of Ethiopia. These kings were descendants of the dynasty of Menelik.

The first three dynasties are mostly legendary and take various elements from the Bible, as well as Ancient Egyptian, Nubian, Greek, Coptic and Arab sources. Many of the monarchs of the Menelik and Kaleb dynasties appear on Ethiopian regnal lists written before 1922, but these lists often contradict each other and many of the kings themselves have not been archeologically verified, though some of the later kings on Tafari's list are confirmed by Aksumite coinage. Many of the historically verified rulers of the Ag'azyan and Menelik dynasties did not rule over Ethiopia but rather over Egypt and/or Nubia. It is only from the dynasty of Kaleb onwards that the monarchs are certainly Aksumite or Abyssinian in origin. The Zagwe and Solomonic dynasties are both historically verified, though only the Solomonic line has a secure historical dating of 1270 to 1975, which at times contradicts the reign dates found Tafari's regnal list.

Because of the length of the Menelik dynasty, Tafari's regnal list breaks up the line of monarchs into three sub-sections, concerning the time periods 982 BC–9 AD (the monarchs who reigned before the birth of Jesus Christ), 9–306 AD (Pre-Christian monarchs who reigned after the birth of Christ) and 306–493 AD (Monarchs of this line who were Christian themselves). The regnal list names the kings from Kaleb to Dil Na'od as a separate dynasty, however other Ethiopian regnal lists do not make the same distinction.

Each monarch has their respective reign dates and number of years listed. Two columns of reign dates were used in the list. One column uses dates according to the Ethiopian calendar from 4530 BC to 1779 AD, while the other column lists the "Year of the World", placing the creation of the world in 5500 BC. Other Ethiopian texts and documents have also placed a similar date for the creation of the world, such as a manuscript in which the year 7260 A.M. was equivalent to the Gregorian date 1768, placing the creation of the world at 5492 BC. Another manuscript is dated to the year 7276 A.M. and is equivalent to 1784 AD, which would place the beginning of the world in 5492 BC as well. Considering that the Ethiopian calendar is roughly 7 or 8 years behind the Gregorian calendar, this would match very closely with the date given on Tafari's list of 5500 BC (Ethiopian calendar). E. A. Wallis Budge noted that the Abyssinians/Ethiopians believed that the world was created "at the autumnal equinox 5500 years before the birth of Christ" and had previously used this as their main dating system. The dating of 5500 BC as the creation of the world on this list is influenced by calculations from the Alexandrian and Byzantine eras which placed the world's creation in 5493 BC and 5509 BC respectively.

The use of Biblical figures in royal lineage has been found in other fictitious histories, such as the Swedish Historia de omnibus Gothorum Sueonumque regibus, written in the 16th century.

Response to the regnal list

E. A. Wallis Budge in 1920.

Egyptologist E. A. Wallis Budge (1857–1934) was dismissive of the claims of great antiquity made by the Abyssinians, whom he described as having a "passionate desire to be considered a very ancient nation", which had been aided by the "vivid imagination of their scribes" who borrowed traditions from the Semites (such as Yamanites, Himyarites and Hebrews) and modified them to "suit [their] aspirations". He noted the lack of pre-Christian regnal lists and believed that there was no 'kingdom' of Abyssinia/Ethiopia until the time of king Zoskales (c. 200 AD). Budge additionally stated that all extant manuscripts date to the 17th–19th centuries and believed that any regnal lists found in them originated from Arab and Coptic writers. Budge felt that the 1922 regnal list "proves" that "almost all kings of Abyssinia were of Asiatic origin" and descended from "Southern or Northern Semites" before the reign of Yekuno Amlak. However, native Ethiopian rule before Yekuno Amlak is evidenced by the kingdoms of D'mt (c. 980–400 BC) and Aksum (c. 150 BC–960 AD), as well as by the rule of the Zagwe dynasty.

The Geographical Journal reviewed In the Country of the Blue Nile in 1928, and noted the regnal list, which contained "many more names [...] than in previously published lists" and was "evidently a careful compilation" which helps to "clear up the tangled skein of Ethiopian history". However, the reviewer did also notice that it "[contained] discrepancies" which Charles Rey "makes no attempt to clear up". The reviewer pointed to how king Dil Na'od is said to have reigned for 10 years from 910 to 920, yet travel writer James Bruce previously stated that the deposition of this dynasty occurred in 960, 40 years later. The reviewer does admit, however, that Egyptologist Henry Salt's dating of this event to 925 may have had "more reason" to it compared to Bruce's dating, considering that Salt's dating is seemingly backed up by Tafari's regnal list.

American newspaper The Washington Post made use of the regnal list when reporting on the coronation of Haile Selassie in 1930. The paper reported that Haile Selassie would become "the 336th sovereign of [the Ethiopian] empire" which was "founded in the ninety-seventh [sic] year after the creation of the world" and as such his reign would begin in "the 6,460th year of the reign of the Ethiopian dynasty". The newspaper noted that Adam was no longer "claimed by Ethiopians as the original ancestor of the kings of Ethiopia" and instead the modern Abyssinians claimed their first king was "Ori, or Aram, the son of Shem". The same article mentioned the 531-year gap between the Flood and the fall of the Tower of Babel, during which time "42 different Ethiopian sovereigns ruled Africa".

Contemporary historian Manfred Kropp described the regnal list as an artfully woven document developed as a rational and scientific attempt by an educated Ethiopian from the early 20th century to reconcile historical knowledge of Ethiopia. Kropp noted that regnal list has often been viewed by historians as little more than an example of a vague notion of historical tradition in north-east Africa. However he did also note that the working methods and sources used by the author of the regnal list remain unclear. Kropp further stated that despite some rulers' names having astonishing similarities to those of Egyptian and Meroitic/Nubian rulers, there has been little attempt to critically examine the regnal list in relation to other Ethiopian sources.

Kropp further noted that Tafari's regnal list was the first Ethiopian king that attempted to provide the names of kings from the 970th year of the world's creation onwards without any chronological gaps. In particular, it was the first Ethiopian regnal list to consistently fill in all dates from the time of Solomon to the Zagwe dynasty. Kropp felt that the regnal list was a result of incorporating non-native traditions of Ethiopia into the native Ethiopian history.

Historicity and sources

Coin of king Endubis.

The regnal list includes a mixture of legendary and historically verifiable rulers. Many kings from the reigns of Makeda and Menelik I onwards appear to be verified through their appearances on other existing regnal lists. However, these regnal lists are not always supported by archaeological evidence. Aksumite kings from approximately the third century onwards minted coins, a practice that may have begun either with the reign of Endubis or a short time before and continued until the 7th century. These coins help to prove the historicity of some kings on Tafari's list, but there are also many kings named on these coins who do not appear on the list. Likewise, there are numerous kings on Tafari's list who allegedly reigned during the Aksumite period that are otherwise unattested in the archaeological record beyond the regnal lists that were written centuries after the fall of the kingdom of Aksum (c. 960). While there are undoubtedly traces of historical fact on Tafari's regnal list, it is only from the Zagwe dynasty onwards that the names and order of the kings match the opinion of historians and archaeologists who study Ethiopia. Although even the Zagwe dynasty has differing traditions on the order of the kings (see Regnal lists of Ethiopia).

Heruy Wolde Selassie and Wazema

Heruy Wolde Selassie in a photograph taken prior to 1939.

German historian Manfred Kropp believed the author of the regnal list was Ethiopian foreign minister Heruy Wolde Selassie (1878–1938). Selassie was later foreign minister to Emperor Haile Selassie and was a philosopher and historian, as well as being able to master several European languages. He had previously served as secretary to Emperor Menelik II (r. 1889–1913). Kropp noted that Selassie's historical sources include the Bible, Christian Arab writers Jirjis al-Makin Ibn al-'Amid (1205–1273) and Ibn al-Rāhib (1205–1295), and Christian traveller and writer Sextus Julius Africanus. Kropp argued that Selassie was one of a number of Ethiopian writers who sought to synchronize Ethiopian history with the wider Christian-Oriental histories. This was aided by the translation of Arabic texts in the 17th century. Kropp also felt that the developing field of Egyptology influenced Selassie's writings, particularly from Eduard Meyer, Gaston Maspero and Alexandre Moret, whose works were published in French in Addis Ababa in the early 20th century. Kropp believed that Selassie was also assisted by French missionaries and the works they held in their libraries.

Selassie wrote a book called Wazema which contained a version of the regnal list. Wazema translates to The Vigil, a metaphor to celebrate the history of the kings of Ethiopia. The book was divided into two sections, the first deals with political Ethiopian history from the dawn of history to modern times, while the second section deals with the history of the Ethiopian church. Manfred Kropp stated that there were three different versions of the regnal list published in the works of Heruy Wolde Selassie. Selassie's regnal list omits the first dynasty of Tafari's list – the so-called "Tribe of Ori or Aram" – and also the first three rulers of the second dynasty, instead beginning in 2545 BC with king Sebtah. Selassie himself stated that he used European literature amongst his sources, including James Bruce's Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile. Manfred Kropp felt that the existence of multiple versions of the regnal list suggest that Selassie grew increasingly critical of the sources he used for the first version of the list in 1922. Ethiopian historian Sergew Hable Selassie commented that Heruy Wolde Selassie "strove for accuracy" but the sources he used for Wazema "precluded his success".

Manfred Kropp noted one important source for the information in Wazema. Selassie himself told the reader that if they wish to find out about more about Joktan, the supposed founder of the Ag'azyan dynasty, they could consult page 237 of a book by "Moraya". At first Kropp thought this was referring to Alexandre Moret, but it was later made clear that Selassie's regnal list had been inspired by a book called Histoire de l'Éthiopie by Louis J. Morié, published in 1904.

Louis J. Morié's Histoire de l'Éthiopie

Louis J. Morié was a French historian who wrote a history of Ethiopia in the early 20th century. The two-volume work, titled Histoire de l'Éthiopie (Nubie et Abyssinie), was published in 1904 and was the first part of a series on the history of Africa, with the first volume focusing on ancient Nubia (also called "Ancient Ethiopia" by Morié) and the second volume focusing on Abyssinia ("Modern Ethiopia"). Historian Manfred Kropp [de] identified the first volume as a key source in the creation of the Ethiopian regnal list that was copied by Tafari Makannon in 1922 and published in Charles F. Rey's book In the Country of the Blue Nile in 1927. Kropp provided examples from Morie's text, specifically page 237 which provides information on Piori I (no. 46 on the regnal list) and pages 304–305 which provide information on the High Priests of Amun that appear on the Ethiopian regnal list, including the additional "Pinedjem" whose existence was an error of early Egyptology. Kropp described the discovery of the regnal list's source as exciting but mixed with some "bitterness" as Morié's book is more imaginative than scientific in its approach to Ethiopian history. Kropp blamed Selassie's European friends and contemporaries for the influence of Morié's book on Selassie's writing of Ethiopian history. Peter Truhart's 1984 book Regents of Nations includes a list of Ethiopian kings resembling the 1922 list with additional information resembling that found in Morié's book, and indeed lists Morié's two-volume work in the bibliography. E. A. Wallis Budge mentions Morié's book in his own similarly titled two-volume work A History of Ethiopia: Nubia and Abyssinia, but surprisingly makes no mention of the clear similarity between Morié's narrative and the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list. Charles Fernand Rey, in his book Unconquered Abyssinia, mentioned an "enthusiastic French writer" who had "gone as far as to date the birth of the Abyssinian monarchy from the foundation of the Kingdom of Meroë by Cush about 5800 B.C." but due to his belief that the Deluge was a "world-wide calamity of historical authenticity" this writer could "not be taken seriously". Rey is likely referring to Morié, who had previously claimed that 5800 BC was the approximate date when Cush began ruling Aethiopia.

Louis J. Morié's book displays his desire to hold on to religion and Biblical narratives in a world that was increasingly looking towards science. He showed concern with the possibility of abandoning religion, which would result in the "civilized" peoples of the world to descend down the moral scale. Morié felt that it was possible for science and religion to be in agreement. He described Atheism as one of the greatest scourges of nations and a cause of moral and political decadence. Because of his anxieties of the decline of religion, Morié sought to base his historical narrative around the Biblical timeline. He described the Book of Genesis as the best source to consult on the most remote parts of human history.

Morié believed that the "Ethiopian state of Meroe" was the oldest empire of the post-Flood world, having been founded by Cush of the Bible, and went on to birth the kingdoms of Egypt, Uruk, Babylon, Assyria and Abyssinia. Morié followed the Biblical tradition by crediting Nimrod, a son of Cush, with founding Uruk and Babylon, and crediting Mizraim, a son of Ham, with founding Egypt. He additionally identified Mizraim with the Egyptian god Osiris, Ham with Amun and Cush with Khonsu.

Morié defined the history of "Ethiopia" as divided into two parts; Ancient Nubia and Christian Abyssinia, and defined "Ethiopians" as the Nubian and Abyssinian peoples. E. A. Wallis Budge similarity defined "Ethiopia" as including both Nubia and Abyssinia in his own two-volume work A History of Ethiopia, published in 1928. Morié acknowledged the potential confusion this could cause and thus occasionally used "Abyssinia" to specify which of these two regions he was writing about, with a priority of using "Ethiopia" for ancient Nubia.

Aleka Taye's History of the People of Ethiopia

Aleka Taye Gabra Mariam (1861–1924) was a Protestant Ethiopian scholar, translator and teacher whose written works include books on grammar, religion and Ethiopian history. Taye was sent to Germany in 1905 by Emperor Menelik II to teach Ge'ez and Amharic at the School of Oriental Studies in Berlin, and to recover some rare Ethiopian books that had been taken to Germany. Taye ultimately brought back 130 books for the Emperor.

Taye was ordered by Menelik II to write a complete history of Ethiopia using Ethiopian, European and Arab sources. Taye's work was not published in his lifetime. His book History of the People of Ethiopia was published in Asmara in 1928 and is believed by historiographers to be part of a larger unpublished manuscript that also dealt with the history of the world and the history of the Ethiopian kings. However, the book on the Ethiopian kings was only half-printed due to the Italian Occupation of Ethiopia in 1935 and was never completed. There is also some controversy over whether Taye was truly the author of this book.

As Taye died in 1924, his text would have pre-dated the publication of Charles Fernand Rey's book In the Country of the Blue Nile in 1927 but it is unclear if it pre-dated the writing of Tafari's regnal list in 1922. According to Dr. Ghelawdewos Araia, Taye's History of the People of Ethiopia was actually published in 1914, with Heruy Wolde Selassie's book Wazema being published later, in 1921. Taye's History of the People of Ethiopia contains a regnal list that matches closely with the one written by Tafari. The names, order, reign lengths and dates of monarchs from the Ag'azyan dynasty to the Solomonic dynasty mostly match with what is written on Tafari's list, though with some occasional differences in the names of the monarchs and regnal lengths.

Other Ethiopian regnal lists

Tafari ultimately did not reveal the sources of information for his regnal list in his brief cover letter, but there are clear references to Ethiopian tradition and many historically verified kings appearing in later portions of the list. Tafari stated that he had "taken a copy" of the list and sent it to Rey, writing in his cover letter that he would be happy to send more information on the history of Ethiopia if asked again. This suggests that the regnal list already existed in some form and that Tafari had simply copied down the information included, possibly from the work of Heruy Wolde Selassie or Aleka Taye mentioned above. E. A. Wallis Budge believed that Tafari's regnal list was likely compiled by the "most competent of scholars and scribes in Adis Ababa", though likely also contained the "considered opinions of Government officials in Abyssinia".

Manfred Kropp noted that numerous regnal lists exist that date back to the 13th century and these are reliable documents. However, for the period before this there are only legendary memories of the Axumite rulers. Regnal lists were created to provide a connection between the Solomonic dynasty and the legendary Axumite kings while skipping the Zagwe dynasty. Such lists were written for the purpose of proving the legitimacy of the ruling Solomonic emperors and had information drawn from chronicles held in monasteries. Kropp believed that Ethiopian regnal lists were intended to fill in the gaps between major events, such as the meeting of Makeda and Solomon, the arrival of Frumentius and the beginning of the Zagwe dynasty. The great variation in names and order between regnal lists was likely because this process took place across several different monasteries and were also passed on orally.

E. A. Wallis Budge felt that any written information on the period of Ethiopian history before the 13th century was "incomplete" and "untrustworthy". However, he felt that this was because any regnal lists or chronological works held in Axum were likely burned or destroyed before Yekuno Amlak ascended the throne in 1270. Budge noted that numerous regnal lists were known to exist in which the number and order of kings were rarely the same. He felt that it was clear that the chronographers of Abyssinia from the 13th and 14th centuries "did not know how many kings had reigned over [their country] from the time of Makeda [...] or the exact order of succession". Budge theorized that while the kings lists showed evidence that they were based on legend and tradition, some parts of the list suggested that the scribes did indeed "[have] access to chronological and historical documents of some kind", including Coptic and Arabic texts which were possibly brought over by monks fleeing Egypt and Nubia during the time of the Arab conquests. Some lists began with Adam or David.

European travellers James Bruce, Henry Salt and Carlo Conti Rossini all published different regnal lists in Europe between the late 18th and early 20th centuries. The lists were written based on information gathered from local Ethiopian scribes. These regnal lists contain a list of names from Menelik I to Dil Na'od, but both the names and order of kings only occasionally overlap between the different lists, and there are numerous kings who appear on one list but are omitted from another (see Regnal lists of Ethiopia for further information). There are also at least two manuscripts held in the British Museum that contain differing regnal lists covering the same lineage of monarchs. Budge theorised that the existence of multiple regnal lists were to due to rival claimants to the throne. Tafari's regnal list noticeably tries to accommodate all these differing traditions by including the majority of the different kings into one longer line of succession.

Two European missionaries in the 16th and 17th centuries, Pedro Páez and Manuel de Almeida, visited Ethiopia and personally saw two different regnal lists on which they based their respective writings on the history of Ethiopia. The manuscripts likely dated to before 1620. Both Páez and de Almeida stated that the Ethiopian emperor lent them books from the church of Axum containing the regnal lists. Manuel de Almeida also read a book from a church at Axum which included a short list of kings of the Zagwe dynasty. This list states that the kings Yemrehana Krestos, Lalibela and Na'akueto La'ab all reigned for exactly 40 years each, with the last king Harbai reigning for 8 years. These reign lengths match those given by Tafari. Manuel de Almeida however stated that "those who knew the history better" said that many kings were missing from this list.

Unpublished sources

It is possible that Tafari's regnal list includes information gathered from sources that have yet to be published or are in private hands. One unpublished text, simply called the Chronicle of Ethiopia, was in the possession of Qesa Gabaz Takla Haymanot of Aksum. The author of this chronicle collected information from various old chronicles held in a number of different churches and monasteries, and attempted to compile the information in a "harmonic" way. The chronicle covers information from the reign of Menelik I to Menelik II. Some of the known information from this unpublished chronicle does support elements of Tafari's list.

Kebra Nagast

The Kebra Nagast, also known as The Glory of the Kings, is a text that tells of how the Queen of Sheba (Makeda) met King Solomon of Israel, their son Menelik I and how the Ark of the Covenant came to Ethiopia. The origins of the Kebra Nagast are obscure. A popular belief is that it was written in the 13th or 14th century to legitimise the ruling Solomonic dynasty. However, some historians have suggested that it was written in the 6th century to glorify the Axumite king Kaleb. Another hypothesis is that was written before the birth of Christ.

Biblical influences

The Queen of Sheba meets King Solomon of Israel, from an illustration accompanying a copy of the Kebra Nagast.

Various Biblical figures are included on Tafari's regnal list. Three of Noah's descendants are named as founders of the first three dynasties; Aram, Ham and Joktan. Gether, son of Aram, and Cush, son of Ham, are also both included as kings on the list. Descendants of Cush named Sabtah, Seba and Sabtechah are named as part of the Kam dynasty. Other Biblical figures include Nimrod, Zerah the Cushite and the Queen of Sheba, whom Ethiopians call "Makeda".

According to Ethiopian tradition Makeda was an ancestor of the Solomonic dynasty and mother of Menelik I, whose father was king Solomon of Israel. E. A. Wallis Budge believed that the queen was more likely to have been from Yemen or Hadhramaut than from Ethiopia. He also believed that the tradition of the Queen of Sheba entered the region of modern-day Ethiopia when it was conquered by a Yemeni tribe called the "Habasha", who were "the first to introduce civilization into the country", as theorized by Carlo Conti Rossini. Budge also thought it was possible that the story was introduced via Jewish traders who settled in Abyssinia/Ethiopia. However, by the early 21st century the theory of a south Arabian or 'Sabaean' origin for Ethiopian civilization was largely abandoned by scholars, and thus some of Budge's ideas would now be considered outdated.

The Biblical events of the flood and the fall of the Tower of Babel are both included in the chronology of the regnal list, dated respectively to 3244 BC and 2713 BC, with the 531-year period in between listed as an interregnum where no kings reigned. Another Biblical story included is that of the Ethiopian eunuch, named Jen Daraba according to this regnal list, who visited Jerusalem during the reign of the 169th sovereign Queen Garsemot Kandake VI.

Coptic and Arabic influences

The first dynasty of Tafari's list, the Tribe of Ori, is taken from medieval Coptic and Arabic texts on the kings of Egypt who ruled before the Great Flood. French historian Louis J. Morié, in his 1904 book Histoire de L'Ethiopie, recorded an almost identical list of kings and queens to those found on the first dynasty of Tafari's list. Morié stated that the regnal list he saw was recorded by the Copts in their annals and was found in both Coptic and Arabic tradition. He however felt that the Egyptian Delta would not have been habitable in the Antediluvian era and thus theorized that these kings ruled Thebes and "Ethiopia" (i.e. Nubia). Morié noted that there had originally been a list of 40 kings, but only 19 of them had been preserved up to the early 20th century. He believed that the regnal list originated from the works of Murtada ibn al-Afif, an Arab writer from the 12th century who wrote a number of works, though only one, titled The Prodigies of Egypt, has partially survived to the present day. The Coptic regnal list begins with Aram, son of Shem, in the same way that Tafari's regnal list begins with Aram, otherwise known as Ori on the 1922 regnal list.

Manfred Kropp theorized that the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list may have been influenced by the works of Ibn al-Rāhib, a 13th-century Coptic historian whose works were translated into Ge'ez by Ethiopian writer Enbaqom in the 16th century, and Jirjis al-Makin Ibn al-'Amid, another 13th century Coptic historian whose work Al-Majmu' al-Mubarak (The Blessed Collection) was also translated around the same time. Both writers partially based their information on ancient history from the works of Julius Africanus and through him quote the historical traditions of Egypt as recorded by Manetho. Jirgis was known as "Wälda-Amid" in Ethiopia. Kropp believed that some of the names of the early part of Tafari's regnal list were taken from a regnal list included within Jirgis' text which draws upon traditions from Manetho and the Old Testament.

A medieval Arab text called Akhbar al-Zaman (The History of Time), dated to between 940 and 1140, may have been an earlier version of the regnal list Morié saw. It is likely based on earlier works such as those of Abu Ma'shar (dated to c. 840–860). The authorship is unknown, but it may have been written by historian Al-Masudi based on earlier Arab, Christian and Greek sources. Another possible author is Ibrahim ibh Wasif Shah who lived during the Twelfth century. The text contains a collection of lore about Egypt and the wider world in the age before the Great Flood and after it. Included is a list of kings of Egypt who ruled before the Great Flood and this list shows some similarities with the list of kings of the "Tribe of Ori or Aram" included on Tafari's list, who also ruled before the Great Flood. Several kings show similarities in names and chronological order, though not all kings on one list appear on the other. The Akhbar al-Zaman kings frequently reign for impossibly long periods of time, with only two kings showing a similarity in length of reigns with those on Tafari's list. Nineteen kings appear on both lists, with two ruling women also being mentioned.

Akhbar al-Zaman Tafari's regnal list Notes
Naqraus I (180 years)
Naqraus II (167 years)
Misram Ori or Aram (60 years)
Gariak I (66 years)
'Anqam the Priest (Short reign) Gannkam I (83 years)
Queen Borsa (67 years)
'Arbaq Gariak II (60 years)
Lujim Djan I (80 years)
Djan II (60 years)
Senefrou (20 years)
Khaslim Zeenabzamin (58 years)
Harsal (34 years) Sahlan (60 years)
Qadrashan Elaryan (80 years)
Qadrashan's widow (de facto Queen regent) (9 years)
Shamrud Nimroud (60 years)
Tusidun's mother (Queen regent) (6 years) Queen Eylouka (45 years) Same person as Qadrashan's widow.
Tusidun
Sarbaq (130 years)
Sahluq (443 years) Saloug (30 years)
Surid (107 years) Kharid (72 years)
Harjit (99 years) Hogeb (100 years)
Menaus (73 years) Makaws (70 years)
Assa (30 years)
Afraus (64 years) Affar (50 years)
Armalinus Milanos (62 years)
Far'an Soliman Tehagui (73 years) None of the pre-Flood kings mentioned in Akhbar al-Zaman share a similar name as this king, however Armalinus' successor Far'an is named as the king who reigned at the time of the Great Flood. Louis J. Morié also stated that "Pharaan" was an alternate name for Soliman Tehagui.

A number of Coptic monks from Egypt came to Ethiopia in the 13th century and brought with them many books written in Coptic and Arabic. These monks also translated many works into Ge'ez. It is possible that the legends from Akhbar al-Zaman may have entered Ethiopia during this time.

Ancient Egyptian and Nubian influences

Reconstructions of six statues of Kushite kings discovered at Dukki-Gel in Sudan.

Many of the Egyptian and Nubian monarchs included on the list are historically verified but are not proven to have ruled the area of modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea, and often have reign dates that do no match historical dates used by modern-day archaeologists. The rulers numbered 88 to 96 on the list are the High Priests of Amun who ruled Upper Egypt during the time of the Twenty-first dynasty (c. 1077–943 BC), whose influence was limited to Lower Egypt. The order of the priests on the list is mostly confirmed by archaeology, though their rule did not extend to modern day Ethiopia and Eritrea. Several other kings on the list have names that are clearly influenced by those of Egyptian pharaohs such as Senefrou (8), Ramenpahte (44), Tutimheb (53), Amen Emhat I (63), Amen Emhat II (83), Amen Hotep Zagdur (102), Aksumay Ramissu (103) and Apras (127).

Numerous Nubian rulers from the Kushite kingdom in modern-day Sudan are also included on Tafari's regnal list. In particular, most of the pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, who ruled over both Nubia and Egypt, are listed as part of the dynasty of Menelik I. However, the Kushite Pharaohs are not known to have ruled much further south than the area of modern-day South Sudan. Kushite monarchs from after the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty of Egypt are also occasionally mentioned on this list, specifically Aktisanes, Aspelta, Harsiotef, Nastasen, Arakamani and Arqamani. Additionally, there are six queens on this list who are referred to as "Kandake", the Meroitic term for the king's sister used by the rulers of Kush. Apart from the monarchs listed above, there were also some Viceroys of Kush who ruled over Nubia during the time of the New Kingdom after Egypt conquered the Kingdom of Kerma in c. 1500 BC.

The Axumite empire at its maximum extent of influence.

Louis J. Morié's Histoire de l'Éthiopie served as the main source for these Egyptian and Nubian monarchs and the regnal order they are presented in on the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list, as noted above. However, there may also be other reasons why the author of this regnal list felt that the inclusion of Egyptian and Nubian monarchs was appropriate for a historical outline of Ethiopia/Abyssinia. One reason is due to the Axumite conquest of Meroë, the last capital of the Kingdom of Kush, by King Ezana in c. 325 AD. It was from this point onward that the Axumites began referring to themselves as "Ethiopians", the Greco-Roman term previously used largely for the Kushites. Following this, the inhabitants of Axum (modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea) were able to claim lineage from the "Ethiopians" or "Aethiopians" mentioned in the Bible, including the Kandakes, who were actually Kushites. The claiming of the term "Ethiopian" by the Axumites may, however, pre-date Christianity. For example, Axumite king Ezana is called "King [...] of the Ethiopians" on a Greek inscription where he also calls himself "son of the invincible Mars", suggesting that this pre-dates his conversion to Christianity.

Professor of Anthropology Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban believed the inclusion of Kushite rulers on the 1922 regnal list suggests that the traditions of ancient Nubia were considered culturally compatible with those of Axum. Makeda, the Biblical Queen of Sheba, was referred to as "Candace" or "Queen Mother" in the Kebra Nagast, suggesting a cultural connection between Ethiopia and the ancient kingdom of Kush. Portuguese missionary Francisco Álvares, who travelled to Ethiopia in 1520, recorded one Ethiopian tradition which claimed that Yeha was "the favourite residence of Queen Candance, when she honoured the country with her presence".

The world according to Herodotus. He defined "Aethiopes" as being south of Egypt and including Meroe.

E. A. Wallis Budge theorized that one of the reasons why the name "Ethiopia" was applied to Abyssinia was because Syrian monks identified Kush and Nubia with Abyssinia when translating the Bible from Greek to Ge'ez. Budge further noted that translators of the Bible into Greek identified Kush with Ethiopia and this was carried over into the translation from Greek to Ge'ez. Louis J. Morié likewise believed the adoption of the word "Ethiopia" by the Abyssinians was due to their desire to search for their origins in the Bible and coming across the word "Ethiopia" in Greek translations. Historian Adam Simmons noted that the 3rd century Greek translation of the Bible translated the Hebrew toponym "Kūš" into "Aethiopia". He argued that Abyssinia did not cement its "Ethiopian" identity until the translation of the Kebra Nagast from Arabic to Ge'ez during the reign of Amda Seyon I (r. 1314–1344). He also argued that global association of the name "Ethiopia" with Abyssinia only took place in the reign of Menelik II, particularly after his success at the Battle of Adwa in 1896, when the Italians were defeated.

E. A. Wallis Budge argued that it was unlikely that the "Ethiopians" mentioned in ancient Greek writings were the Abyssinians, but instead were far more likely to be the Nubians of Meroë. He believed that the native name of the region around Axum was "Habesh" from which "Abyssinia" is derived and originating in the name of the Habasha tribe from southern Arabia. He did note however that the modern day people of the region did not like this term and preferred the name "Ethiopia" due to its association with Kush. The ancient Nubians are not known to have used the term "Ethiopian" to refer to themselves, however Silko, the first Christian Nubian king of Nobatia, in the early sixth century described himself as "Chieftain of the Nobadae and of all the Ethiopians". The earliest known Greek writings that mention "Aethiopians" date to the 8th century BC, in the writings of Homer and Hesiod. Herodotus, in his work Histories (c. 430 BC), defined "Aethiopia" as beginning at the island of Elephantine and including all land south of Egypt, with the capital being Meroe. This geographical definition confirms that in ancient times the term "Aethiopia" was commonly used to refer to Nubia and the Kingdom of Kush rather than modern day Ethiopia. The earliest known writer to use the name "Ethiopia" for the region of the Kingdom of Axum was Philostorgius around 440 AD.

There are also some pieces of archaeological evidence that show connections between ancient Nubia and Abyssinia. Some Nubian objects from the Napatan and Meroitic periods have been found in Ethiopian/Abyssinian graves dating to the 8th to 2nd centuries BC. There have also been discoveries of red-orange sherds similar to those from the pre-Axumite period in sites of the Jebel Mokram Group in Sudan, showing contacts along caravan routes toward the Nile Valley in the 1st millennium BC. This shows that interactions between Nubia and modern day Ethiopia long pre-date the Axumite conquest. Archaeologist Rodolfo Fattovich believed that the people of the pre-Axumite culture had contacts with the kingdom of Kush, the Achaemenid Empire and the Greeks, but that these contacts were "mostly indirect".

Stele with Egyptian hieroglyphs found in Axum, as shown in James Bruce's Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile.

Scottish traveller James Bruce, in his multi-volume work Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile included a drawing of a stele found in Axum and brought back to Gondar by the Ethiopian emperor. The stele had carved figures of Egyptian gods and was inscribed with hieroglyphs. E. A. Wallis Budge believed the stele to be a "Cippi of Horus" which were placed in homes and temples to keep evil spirits away. He noted that these date from the end of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty (c. 664–525 BC) onwards. Budge believed this was proof of contacts between Egypt and Axum in the early 4th century BC. Archaeological excavations in the Kassala region have also revealed direct contact with Pharaonic Egypt. Some tombs excavated in the Yeha region, the likely capital of the Dʿmt kingdom, contained imported albastron dated to c. 770–404 BC which had a Napatan or Egyptian origin.

Budge noted that none of the Egyptian and Nubian kings on the 1922 list appear on other known regnal lists from Ethiopia. He believed that contemporary Ethiopian priests had been "reading a modern European History of Egypt" and had incorporated in the regnal list Egyptian pharaohs who had "laid Nubia and other parts of the Sudan under tribute", as well as the names of various Kushite kings and Priest kings. To support his argument, he stated that while the names of Abyssinian kings have meanings, the names of Egyptian kings would be meaningless if translated into the Ethiopian language. Historian Manfred Kropp likewise noted that no Ethiopian manuscript prior to Tafari's regnal list included names of monarchs resembling those used by ancient Egyptian rulers.

A comparison of Tafari's list with other known Ethiopian regnal lists shows that most of the kings on Tafari's list with Egyptian or Nubian names do not have these elements in their names on the other regnal lists (see Regnal lists of Ethiopia). For example, the 102nd king on Tafari's list, Amen Hotep Zagdur, only appears as "Zagdur" on one British Museum manuscript and on Rossini's list. The next king, Aksumay Ramissu, is only known as "Aksumay" on the same two lists. The 106th king, Abralyus Wiyankihi II, only appears as "Abralyus" on the same manuscript. The 111th king, Tsawi Terhak Warada Nagash, is a combination of multiple kings. One king named "Sawe" or "Za Tsawe" is listed as the fifth king following Menelik I, according to one British Museum manuscript and the lists recorded by Bruce and Salt. Another king named "Warada Nagash" is named as the eighth king following Menelik I on a different manuscript. No known list includes both kings, and Tafari's list combined the two different kings as a single entry, with the addition of the name "Terhak", to be equated with the Nubian pharaoh Taharqa, who otherwise does not appear on other Ethiopian regnal lists. Taharqa's inclusion on the regnal list ties in with the mention of his name in the Hebrew Bible (2 Kings 19:9; Isaiah 37:9), where he was described as the "King of Ethiopia", in reference to Kush in modern-day Sudan. Also missing from other Ethiopian regnal lists are the six "Kandake" queens numbered 110, 135, 137, 144, 162 and 169. It is likely that these queens refer to the reigning female monarchs of Kush, although it is unclear who exactly they are based on as their names do not match any known queens of Kush. The second Kandake queen, Nikawla (no. 135), has a name which was sometimes used in medieval times to the refer to the Queen of Sheba.

Herihor, High Priest of Amun of Upper Egypt between c. 1080 and 1074 BC, shown here with wife Nodjmet.

The inclusion of the High Priests of Amun who ruled Upper Egypt between c. 1080 and 943 BC can be directly traced to Louis J. Morié's Histoire de l'Éthiopie and contemporary Egyptology. The association between these Egyptian High Priests and Aethiopia was particularly strong in European Egyptological writings in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. During this period, several major Egyptologists (such as Heinrich Brugsch, James Breasted and George Reisner) believed that the rise of the Kush kingdom was due to the influence of the High Priests of Amun moving into Nubia towards the end of the Twentieth Dynasty because of political conflict arising at the end of the New Kingdom. Brugsch in particular entertained the idea that the early Kushite kings were lineal descendants of the priests from Egypt, though this was explicitly rejected by Breasted. Later Egyptologists A. J. Arkell and Walter Emery theorized that a priestly "government in exile" had influenced the Kushite kingdom. E. A. Wallis Budge agreed with these ideas and suggested that the High Priests of Amun moved south to Nubia due to the rise of the Libyan pharaohs in Lower Egypt, and consolidated their high position by intermarrying with Nubian women. Budge further theorised that the name of the Nubian pharaoh Piye or "Piankhi" was taken from that of the High Priest of Amun Piankh and he was possibly Piankh's descendant. Such ideas around the Kushite monarchy originating from this specific line of priests are now considered outdated, but the popularity of these theories in the early 20th century explains their inclusion, in almost exact chronological order, on Tafari's regnal list from 1922.

Greek influences

6th century BC Greek black-figure vase showing Memnon leaving for Troy.

The ancient Greek mythical queen of Aethiopia, Cassiopeia, is claimed as part of Ethiopia's ancient history according to Tafari's list, which lists her as the 49th monarch and the third of the Ag'azyan dynasty. Her grandson Electryon also makes an appearance on this list, though oddly he is placed six centuries before Cassiopeia, as part of the Tribe of Kam. Cassiopeia's husband, Cepheus also makes an appearance on the regnal list, but is numbered 71st and is dated to over 400 years after her reign. These discrepancies stem from the narrative of Louis J. Morié's Histoire de l'Éthiopie, where he claimed that two separate queens named Cassiopeia existed at different times. Morié's book also influenced the inclusion of Memnon, a mythical king of "Aethiopia" who fought in the Trojan War, under the name "Amen Emhat II", with his father Tithonus included under the name "Titon Satiyo".

The author of the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list also included additional figures who were not part of Morié's original narrative. The legendary Cretian king Minos is listed as the 66th monarch under the name "Mandes", a variation of the name used by Diodorus in his work Bibliotheca Historia, though oddly he was listed as a king of Egypt in Diodorus' original text rather than Crete. Diodorus' text seems to have influenced other parts of the regnal list, such as the 122th monarch named "Sabakon" (an alternate name for the Nubian pharaoh Shabaka, who is already mentioned earlier in the list) and the 127th monarch named "Apras", the Greek name for Egyptian pharaoh Wahibre Haaibre. In addition to the above, the Egyptian king Proteus is also included on the list as part of the Ag'azyan dynasty, however he only appears in Greek writings and is otherwise unattested in the Egyptian archaeological record.

Conflict with other Ethiopian traditions

Abreha and Atsbeha

Tafari's list occasionally does not match with other Ethiopian traditions. One example is Abreha and Atsbeha, who are believed by Ethiopians to have been two brothers who brought Christianity to Ethiopia. However, Tafari lists 'Abreha Atsbeha' as a single monarch numbered 201st on his list and as a son of queen Sofya. In reality, the son of Sofya was king Ezana who was the first Christian king of Axum. Ezana and his brother Saizana could have been the historical figures that Abreha and Atsbeha were based on. Queen Sofya ruled as a regent for her son Ezana, though Tafari considers her to be a reigning monarch in her own right, even allowing for her regency to be counted as a period of co-rule with her son. The listing of 'Abreha Atsbeha' as a single figure is most likely a transcrible error, as Aleka Taye's version of the regnal list clearly states that 'Abreha' and 'Atsbeha' are two separate individuals. Historian Manfred Kropp believed that the listing of 'Abreha Atsbeha' as a single monarch was an error in transcription.

Another example of conflicting traditions is that of king Angabo I, who is placed in the middle of the Ag'azyan dynasty on the 1922 regnal list. However some Ethiopian legends claim that this king was the founder of a new dynasty. In both cases the dating is given as the late 14th century BC.

E. A. Wallis Budge noted that there were differing versions of the chronological order of the Ethiopian kings, with some lists stating that a king named Aithiopis was the first to rule while other lists claim that the first king was Adam. Tafari's list instead begins with Aram.

The list also has its own internal conflicting information. Tafari claims that it was during the reign of the 169th monarch, queen Garsemot Kandake VI, in the first century AD when Christianity was formally introduced to Ethiopia. However, this is in direct conflict with the story of the later queen Sofya, who ruled 249 years later.

Regnal list

Gregorian Dates: Tafari's regnal list uses dates according to the Ethiopian Calendar. According to Charles Fernand Rey, one can estimate the Gregorian date equivalent by adding a further seven or eight years to the date. As an example, he states that 1 AD on the Ethiopian calendar would be 8 AD on the Gregorian calendar. He notes that the calendar of Ethiopia likely changed in some ways throughout history but argued that this was a good enough method for estimates. E. A. Wallis Budge stated that the Ethiopian calendar was 8 years behind the Gregorian calendar from 1 January to 10 September and 7 years behind from 11 September to 31 December.

Tribe of Ori or Aram (1,286 years)

"Tribe or Posterity of Ori or Aram"

1894 map of the theoretical location of the so-called "Mountains of the Moon".

The first dynasty of this regnal list consists of 21 monarchs who ruled before the Biblical "Great Flood". This dynasty is legendary and borrowed from a list of pre-Flood kings of Egypt that is found in medieval Coptic and Arabic texts. French historian Louis J. Morié recorded a similar list of 19 monarchs in his 1904 book Histoire de L'Éthiopie. The medieval Arab text Akhbar al-Zaman contains a regnal list that may have been an earlier version of the list Morié saw centuries later. This list contained a total of 19 kings and the majority had similar names to those found on the later version in 1904. Morié noted that the kings were supposed to be rulers of Egypt, but he personally believed that they had actually ruled what he referred to as "Ethiopia" (i.e. Nubia). He pointed to a story of the third king, Gankam, who had a palace built beyond the Equator at the Mountains of the Moon, as proof that these kings resided in Aethiopia. The kings of this dynasty are described as Priest-kings in Coptic tradition and were called the "Soleyman" dynasty. While the original Coptic tradition called the first king "Aram", in reference to the son of Shem of the same name, this regnal list calls the king "Ori or Aram". The name "Ori" may have originated from Morié's claim that this dynasty was called the "Aurites", and that Aram had inspired the name of his country, which was called "Aurie" or "Aeria". Alternatively, the use of the name "Ori" may have been used because of the Biblical genealogy from Adam to Solomon written in the Kebra Nagast, which includes an additional king named "Orni" whose identity remains unclear and is placed directly before Aram.

The "Soleyman" dynasty was said to have ruled before the Great Flood for 9,000 years, though Morié personally believed the period of rule was closer to 2,000 years. Their capital city was called either "Fanoun" or "Kanoun" and they ruled over much of North and East Africa according to Coptic legend. They also founded other cities named "Gevherabad" (capital of the province of "Schadoukiam"), "Ambarabad" (or "Anbarabad") and "Gabkar" and used a now lost language called "Bialban".

Due to its non-native origin, the tradition of the Ori/Aram dynasty has often been treated as irrelevant to wider Ethiopian tradition. Ethiopian writer and foreign minister Heruy Wolde Selassie ignored this dynasty in his book Wazema. Ethiopian historian Fisseha Yaze Kassa, in his book Ethiopia's 5,000-year history, completely omitted this dynasty and instead begins with the Ham/Kam dynasty. In his book Regents of Nations, Peter Truhart [de] described this dynasty as "non-historical".

Other Ethiopian traditions name a completely different line of kings as the first to rule Ethiopia. Egyptologist E. A. Wallis Budge stated that in his time the contemporary Ethiopians could not "tell us [anything] about the reigns of their [pre-Flood] kings" and relied on Biblical genealogy for a list of names. The list that Budge provided for the pre-Flood kings varies considerably from the one on Tafari's list (see Regnal lists of Ethiopia), essentially using the Biblical genealogy from Adam to Solomon. Budge noted that some Ethiopian regnal lists stretched back to 5500 BC (the year the world was believed by the Ethiopians to have been created) and began with Adam. Other Ethiopian traditions instead state that the Ethiopians descend from Ham, a grandson of Noah. There are some brief regnal lists that outline a genealogy from Ham and his son Cush to kings representing Ethiopia and Axum.

By contrast, Tafari's list names neither Adam or Ham as the founder of the Ethiopian line, but instead chooses Aram, son of Shem, a grandson of Noah, to be the "great ancestor" of the Ethiopian monarchy. E. A. Wallis Budge believed that the reason for this was because contemporary Ethiopians wanted to distance themselves from Ham and the Curse of Ham. The medieval Ethiopian text Kebra Nagast stated that "God decreed sovereignty for the seed of Shem, and slavery for the seed of Ham". The original writer of Tafari's regnal list appears to have deliberately relegated Ham to being the founder of the second Ethiopian dynasty instead of the first dynasty as was done on older regnal lists.

The only rulers of this dynasty who do not originate from the Coptic Antediluvian regnal list are "Senefrou" and "Assa", who E. A. Wallis Budge equated with the historical Egyptian pharaohs Sneferu and Djedkare Isesi. Their inclusion as rulers of Ethiopia may be due to some kind of interaction with Nubia (i.e. "Aethiopia").

No.
Name
Length of reign
Reign dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
"Year of the World"
Alternate names Notes
1 Ori I 60 years 4530–4470 BC 970–1030 Aram
  • Son of Shem in Biblical tradition.
  • Son of Adam in the Coptic tradition of the "Soleyman" dynasty.
2 Gariak I 66 years 4470–4404 BC 1030–1096 Gether
  • Son of Aram.
  • There may have originally been other kings who ruled between Gariak I and Gannkam.
3 Gannkam 83 years 4404–4321 BC 1096–1179
  • Descendant of Gariak I.
  • Coptic tradition credits this king with building a palace out of iron and bronze at the foot of the Mountains of the Moon after foreseeing the Great Flood and its future destruction. It was said that the palace had 35 bronze statues that spouted water from their mouths. Gannkam was also credited by Coptic tradition as the author of several history books.
4 Borsa (Queen) 67 years 4321–4254 BC 1179–1246
  • First female monarch on this regnal list.
  • Coptic tradition credits Borsa with "administering justice to the people sitting on a throne of fire".
5 Gariak II 60 years 4254–4194 BC 1246–1306
  • Son of Gannkam.
6 Djan I 80 years 4194–4114 BC 1306–1386 Giyan
  • "Djan" is an old Ethiopian title meaning "chief", "king" or "royalty".
  • Medieval Coptic tradition claims the word "Jinn" supposedly came from the name of this king.
7 Djan II 60 years 4114–4054 BC 1386–1446 Giyan
  • Son of Djan I.
  • Built 3 pyramids in Egypt according to Coptic tradition.
8 Senefrou 20 years 4054–4034 BC 1446–1466 Sneferu
  • Historical pharaoh Sneferu (r. 2613–2589 BC) who raided Nubia during his reign.
9 Zeenabzamin 58 years 4034–3976 BC 1466–1524 Zayn az-Zaman
  • Founded the Iraninan city of Anbarabad according to Coptic tradition.
  • The name "Zeyn al-Zaman" means "Ornament of the century".
10 Sahlan 60 years 3976–3916 BC 1524–1584
11 Elaryan 80 years 3916–3836 BC 1584–1664 El-Rian
Rujan
  • Pyramid builder according to Coptic tradition.
12 Nimroud 60 years 3836–3776 BC 1664–1724 Youssef
  • Not to be confused with the Biblical figure Nimrod.
  • According to Coptic tradition, his original name was Youssef and he was a minister to king Elaryan. He was also a pyramid builder.
13 Eylouka (Queen) 45 years 3776–3731 BC 1724–1769 Dalukah
  • Second female monarch on this regnal list.
  • A pyramid builder according to Coptic tradition. She was also believed to have built the Lighthouse of Alexandria, a Nilometer at Memphis and a wall around Egypt to protect it against invasion.
14 Saloug 30 years 3731–3701 BC 1769–1799 Sahlok
Saluq
  • Originally the 34th ruler of this dynasty according to Coptic tradition. The surviving list of kings by the early 20th century was apparently incomplete.
15 Kharid 72 years 3701–3629 BC 1799–1871 Harid
Sarid
Scharid
Surid
  • Eldest son of Saloug.
  • Coptic tradition credits this king with building 3 pyramids and reigning 390 years before the Great Flood. Tafari's list dates the end of this king's reign to 385 years before the Flood.
16 Hogeb 100 years 3629–3529 BC 1871–1971 Hugib
  • The longest-reigning monarch of this regnal list.
  • Second son of Saloug and brother of Kharid.
17 Makaws 70 years 3529–3459 BC 1971–2041 Makaos
Manos
18 Assa 30 years 3459–3429 BC 2041–2071 Isesi
  • Historical pharaoh Djedkare Isesi, who had a pygmy brought back to him from the "Land of the Spirits" (Punt).
19 Affar 50 years 3429–3379 BC 2071–2121 Afros
  • Coptic tradition claimed that this king's name was the inspiration behind the word "Africa".
20 Milanos 62 years 3379–3317 BC 2121–2183 Malinos
21 Soliman Tehagui 73 years 3317–3244 BC 2183–2256 Soliman Cagi
Soleyman Tchaghi
Pharaon
  • Originally the 40th and last ruler of the "Soleyman" dynasty in medieval Coptic tradition.
  • Coptic and Arabic tradition claimed that this king sent his general "Sourkhrag" and priest "Philemon" to discuss with Noah the worship of God and of idols prior to the Great Flood.
"Total: 21 sovereigns of the Tribe of Ori."

Interregnum (531 years)

"From the Deluge until the fall of the Tower of Babel".

The 531-year period from 3244 BC to 2713 BC (2256–2787 A.M.) is the only gap in Tafari's regnal list where no monarchs are named. Tafari leaves this gap unexplained, but some older Ethiopian regnal lists state that the monarchs who reigned between the Great Flood and the fall of the Tower of Babel were pagans, idolators and worshippers of the "serpent", and thus were not worthy to be named.

The Tower of Babel was, according to the Bible, built by humans in Shinar at a time when humanity spoke a single language. The tower was intended to reach the sky, but this angered God, who confounded their speech and made them unable to understand each other and caused humanity to be scattered across the world. This story serves as an origin myth to explain why so many different languages are spoken around the world.

Tribe of Kam (728 years)

"Sovereignty of the tribe of Kam after the fall of the tower of Babel."

This dynasty begins with the second son of the Biblical prophet Noah, Ham, whose descendants populated the African continent and adjoining parts of Asia according to Biblical tradition. Ham was the father of Cush (Kush/Nubia), Mizraim (Egypt), Canaan (Levant) and Put (Libya or Punt). According to Heruy Wolde Selassie's book Wazema, the Kamites originated from the Middle East and conquered Axum, Meroe, Egypt and North Africa.

Most Ethiopian traditions present a very different line of kings descending from Ham. E. A. Wallis Budge stated that in his time there was a common belief in Ethiopia that the people were descended from Ham, his son Cush and Cush's son Ethiopis, who is not named in the Bible, and from whom the country of Ethiopia gets its name. Budge however found it doubtful that the Kushites were the first to inhabit the region of modern-day Ethiopia. Nonetheless, Ham has often been considered the founder of Ethiopia according to many Ethiopian regnal lists. Some lists explicitly state the names "Ethiopia" and "Axum" come from descendants of Ham that are not named in the Bible. See Regnal lists of Ethiopia page for more information.

Ethiopian historian Fisseha Yaze Kassa's book Ethiopia's 5,000-year history begins this dynasty with Noah and omits Habassi, but otherwise has a similar line of kings as this list. Heruy Wolde Selassie omitted the first three rulers of this dynasty in his book Wazema and begins the dynasty with Sebtah in 2545 BC. Peter Truhart, in his book Regents of Nations, dated the monarchs of this dynasty to 2585–1930 BC and stated that the capital during this period was called Mazez. He identified king Kout as the first king of this dynasty instead of Kam. Truhart called the monarchs from Kout to Lakniduga the "Dynasty of Kush" based at Mazez and stated they ruled from 2585 to 2145 BC, while the monarchs from Manturay to Piori I are listed as the "Kings of Ethiopia and Meroe" who ruled from 2145 to 1930 BC.

No.
Name
Picture Length of reign
Reign dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
"Year of the World"
Alternate names Notes
22 Kam 78 years 2713–2635 BC 2787–2865 Ham
Kmt
  • Biblical figure Ham, son of Noah.
  • Ethiopian historian Fisseha Yaze Kassa provided alternate reign dates for this king of 3500–2787 BC (713 years) and listed Noah as the first king of this dynasty with reign dates of 3844–3500 BC (344 years).
  • According to Louis J. Morié, Kam/Ham was killed in a battle against the Assyrians 480 years after the Great Flood after attempting to invade their territories.
  • E. A. Wallis Budge theorized that this king's name was actually a reference to "k.mt", the name of Egypt before the Greco-Roman period and noted that some kings of this dynasty had clearly Egyptian-inspired names (such as Amen, Horkam and Ramenpahte).
  • Peter Truhart believed this king's inclusion on the regnal list represented Egyptian contacts with Punt (which he identifies with modern-day Ethiopia) that took place around 3000 BC.
23 Kout 50 years 2635–2585 BC 2865–2915 Cush
  • Biblical figure Cush, son of Ham.
  • Often considered a representation of the Kingdom of Kush in modern-day Sudan. Some translations of the Bible identify Kush with "Aethiopia", leading to the traditional Ethiopian identification with ancient Kush, which is seen throughout this list.
  • Ethiopian historian Fisseha Yaze Kassa provided alternate reign dates for this king of 2787–2545 BC (242 years).
24 Habassi 40 years 2585–2545 BC 2915–2955
  • Son of Cush/Kout.
  • Ethiopian sources claim the word "Abyssinia" is derived from the name of this king.
  • While many historians link the word "Abyssinia" with the Arabic word "Habesh", this link was rejected by Ethiopian scholar Aleqa Asras Yenesaw.
  • Ethiopian historian Fisseha Yaze Kassa omitted this king from his list of monarchs of the Kam dynasty.
25 Sebtah 30 years 2545–2515 BC 2955–2985 Sabtah
  • Biblical figure Sabtah, son of Cush.
  • An Ethiopian tradition states that Sebtah was king of Kush and Wurd Bashir was the capital during his reign. This legend states that he traveled to the source of the Nile and built Wurd Bashir with a great wall and nine gates.
26 Elektron 30 years 2515–2485 BC 2985–3015 Electryon?
27 Neber 30 years 2485–2455 BC 3015–3045 Nabir
28 Amen I 21 years 2455–2434 BC 3045–3066
  • Not numbered on Tafari's list.
  • Peter Truhart stated this king ruled for 29 years.
29 Nehasset Nais (Queen) 30 years 2434–2404 BC 3066–3096 Nahset Nays
  • Third female monarch on this regnal list.
  • According to Ethiopian writer Aleka Taye, it was during the reign of this queen that the Sinites, descended from Ham, came to Ethiopia. There is an Ethiopian tradition that the Sinites were the ancestors of the Shanqella tribe.
  • This queen's name could be based on the ancient Egyptian word "Nehesy" meaning "the Nubian".
30 Horkam 29 years 2404–2375 BC 3096–3125 Tarkim
Raema
Horus
  • Husband of Nehasset Nais.
  • According to Ethiopian writer Aleka Taye, it was in the 15th year of this king's reign that Canaan's son Arwadi ("the Arvadite") and his wife Entela came to Ethiopia due to a famine in the land of Canaan. There is an Ethiopian tradition that the Qemant tribe is descended from Anayer, a son of Arwadi and Entela.
31 Saba I 30 years 2375–2345 BC 3125–3155 Seba
32 Sofard 30 years 2345–2315 BC 3155–3185 Sofarid
33 Askndou 25 years 2315–2290 BC 3185–3210 Eskendi
34 Hohey 35 years 2290–2255 BC 3210–3245 Hohey Satwo
35 Adglag 20 years 2255–2235 BC 3245–3265 Ahyat
Adeldag
36 Adgala I 30 years 2235–2205 BC 3265–3295 Adgas
Adgale
  • Not numbered on Tafari's list.
37 Lakniduga 25 years 2205–2180 BC 3295–3320 Bakundon Malis
38 Manturay 35 years 2180–2145 BC 3320–3355 Manturay Haqbi
Mithra
Mithras
Mentu-Ra
  • In Louis J. Morié's narrative, Manturay and his successor Rakhu were the first legislators of Ethiopia and regulated the order and ceremonies of the solar cult in Aethiopia.
39 Rakhu 30 years 2145–2115 BC 3355–3385 Rakhu Dedme
Phlegyas
  • Louis J. Morié identified this king with Phlegyas, a king of the Lapiths who appears in Greek mythology.
40 Sabe I 30 years 2115–2085 BC 3385–3415 Sobi
Kepheas
Sabtechah
  • Could be the Biblical figure Sabtechah, a son of Cush.
  • Louis J. Morié claimed that it was during the reign of this king that a Kushite tribe went to Chaldea and lived alongside the Jewish population there.
41 Azagan I 30 years 2085–2055 BC 3415–3445 Azagan Far'on
Azegan
  • Not numbered on Tafari's list.
42 Sousel Atozanis 20 years 2055–2035 BC 3445–3465 Sosahul Atonzanes
Aktisanes
43 Amen II 15 years 2035–2020 BC 3465–3480 Amen Sowiza
44 Ramenpahte 20 years 2020–2000 BC 3480–3500 Raminpahti Masalne
Menpekhtira
45 Wanuna 3 days 2000 BC 3500
46 Piori I 15 years 2000–1985 BC 3500–3515 Poeri
  • According to Heruy Wolde Selassie, this king was defeated by Rama (a Hindu god) of India. This narrative was inspired by Louis J. Morié's Historie de l'Ethiopie, in which he claimed that Rama had a vast empire stretching across India and Arabia and had defeated the Egyptian Pharaoh. According to Morié, the Ethiopian king, "Poeri I", then became a tributary to Rama. While Morié did not make this identification, it is possible that the author of the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list identified Rama with Raamah, son of Cush and father of Sheba, who founded the next dynasty of this regnal list.
"Total: 25 sovereigns of the tribe of Kam, plus 21 sovereigns of the tribe of Ori – Grand total, 46 sovereigns."

Ag'azyan Dynasty (1,003 years)

"Agdazyan [sic] dynasty of the posterity of the kingdom of Joctan."

Note: Historian Manfred Kropp stated the word "Agdazyan" is likely a transcribal error and meant to say "Ag'azyan", as the Ethiopian syllable signs da and 'a are relatively easy to confuse with each other.

Ancient blocks from Yeha, the likely capital of D'mt, with Sabaean inscriptions.

The third dynasty of this regnal list is descended from Joktan, a son of Eber, grandson of Shem and great-grandson of Noah. The first ruler of the dynasty, Akbunas Saba, could be Sheba, son of Joktan or at least a descendant of Joktan. The dynasty ends with the famous Queen of Sheba, whose name is Makeda in Ethiopian tradition. According to Genesis 10:7 and 1 Chronicles 1:9, Sheba was a grandson of Cush through Raamah, which provides a link between this Semitic dynasty and the Hamitic dynasty that preceded it. The so-called Ag'azyan dynasty includes a number of kings whose names clearly reference ancient Egypt and Kush, most notably the line of High Priests of Amun that reigned near the end of this dynastic period. While most of these monarchs are archaeologically verified, they did not rule modern-day Ethiopia, but rather ruled over or had some contact with ancient Nubia and Kush, which is equated with Ethiopia in some translations of the Bible and these translated editions have influenced modern Ethiopia's belief in an affinity with ancient Nubia.

This section of the regnal list is heavily influenced by Louis J. Morié's book Histoire de L'Éthiopie, with the majority of monarchs having similar names and line of succession to those found in Morié's book. Much of Morié's book cannot be considered historically accurate, as it was written over a century ago and largely attempted to fit contemporary Egyptological knowledge within the Biblical narrative. Historian Manfred Kropp identified this book as a key source in the creation of the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list as a whole, and felt that it was more imaginative than scientific in its approach to the history of Aethiopia. Morié's claim that Sabaeans came to Aethiopia during the reign of either pharaoh Pepi I or Pepi II may have inspired the narrative of a "Sabaean" dynasty ruling Ethiopia, as claimed by the 1922 regnal list.

Four panels by an unknown 17th to 19th century Ethiopian painter showing the killing of Arwe.

While this dynasty takes inspiration from foreign sources, it does include some notable kings that developed within indigenous Abyssinian tradition. Specifically, five monarchs are named in native Ethiopian sources as rulers from distant ancient times, these being Angabo I (no. 74), who founded a new dynasty after killing the serpent king Arwe, and his successors Zagdur I (no. 77), Za Sagado (no. 80), Tawasya Dews (no. 97) and Makeda (no. 98), the last of whom is identified with the Queen of Sheba (See Regnal lists of Ethiopia for more information). The 1922 regnal list incorporates these five rulers within the longer narrative of Louis J. Morié. There is also another king named Ethiopis, who Ethiopian tradition credits with inspiring the name of the country.

The word Ag'azyan means "free" or "to lead to freedom" in Ge'ez. According to Heruy Wolde Selassie in his book Wazema, this originated from the liberation of Ethiopia from the rule of the Kamites/Hamites. Selassie also claimed that three of Joktan's sons divided Ethiopia between themselves. Sheba received Tigray, Obal received Adal and Ophir received Ogaden. If this is to be believed, then presumably the later monarchs who followed Sheba/Akbunas Saba ruled from the Tigray Region.

E. A. Wallis Budge had a different theory of the origin of the term Aga'azyan, believing that it referred to several tribes that migrated from Arabia to Africa either at the same time as or after the Habashat had migrated. He stated that the word "Ge'ez" had come from "Ag'azyan". The term "Ag'azyan" may also refer to the Agʿazi region of the Axumite empire located in modern-day Eastern Tigray and Southern Eritrea.

Depiction of Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, from an Ethiopian Chapel in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

Sheba is usually considered by historians to have been the south Arabian kingdom of Saba, in an area that later became part of the Aksumite Empire. The Kebra Nagast however specifically states that Sheba was located in Ethiopia. This has led to some historians arguing that Sheba may have been located in a region in Tigray and Eritrea, which was once called "Saba". American historian Donald N. Levine suggested that Sheba may be linked with the historical region of Shewa, where the modern Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa is located. Additionally, a Sabaean connection with Ethiopia is evidenced by a number of settlements on the Red Sea coast that emerged around 500 BC and were influenced by Sabaean culture. These people were traders and had their own writing script. Gradually over time their culture merged with that of the local people. The Sabaean language was likely the official language of northern Ethiopia during the pre-Axumite period (c. 500 BC to 100 AD).

Some historians believe that the kingdom of Dʿmt, located in modern-day Eritrea and Ethiopia, was Sabaean-influenced, possibly due to Sabaean dominance of the Red Sea or due to mixing with the indigenous population. D'mt had developed by the first millennium BC in modern-day northern Ethiopia and Eritrea, and had "a veneer of cultural affinities adopted largely from the Saba'an culture centred across the Red Sea in the area of modern Yemen". The D'mt area had a written language that appeared "almost entirely Saba'an in origin". Historian Jacke Phillips argued that "some form of underlying political unification must have allowed its dispersal". Older hypotheses on the origin of the pre-Axumite culture suggested that it developed due to migrations of population from south Arabia in pre-modern times or that there had been some kind of Sabaean colonization of the modern-day Ethiopia/Eritrea region. More recent theories instead suggest that the culture developed out of a long process of contacts dating back to the 2nd millennium BC. Taking into account the proof of Sabaean-Ethiopian contacts, this dynasty, while legendary, is nonetheless a clear reference to the historical interactions with southern Arabia that occurred in the ancient past and influenced Ethiopian culture and tradition.

Roman-Jewish historian Josephus wrote that that Achaemenid king Cambyses II conquered the capital of Aethiopia and changed its name from "Saba" to "Meroe". Josephus also stated the Queen of Sheba came from this region and was queen of both Egypt and Ethiopia. This suggests that a belief in a connection between Sheba and Kush was already in place by the 1st century AD. Josephus also associated Sheba/Saba with Kush when describing a campaign led by Moses against the Ethiopians, in which he won and later married Tharbis, the daughter of the king of 'Saba' or Meroe.

This dynasty includes a line of Egyptian High Priests of Amun numbered 88 to 96 which closely matches archaeological evidence but is not entirely correct. Manfred Kropp felt that these monarchs were the clearest borrowings from Egyptological knowledge and he theorized that Heruy Wolde Selassie deliberately altered the chronological order when writing this regnal list.

Peter Truhart, in his book Regents of Nations, dated the kings from Akbunas Saba II to Lakndun Nowarari to 1930–1730 BC and listed them as a continuation of the line of "Kings of Ethiopia and Meroe" that begun in 2145 BC. However, Truhart's regnal list then jumps forward and dates the kings from Tutimheb onwards as contemporaries of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth dynasties of Egypt, with a date range of 1552–1185 BC. Truhart also identified modern-day Ethiopia with the Land of Punt. His list however omits the High Priests of Amun from Herihor to Pinedjem II without giving a clear reason. Despite this, he still acknowledges the rule of the High Priests in Thebes as taking place from c. 1080 to 990 BC.

No.
Name
Picture Length of reign
Reign dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
"Year of the World"
Alternate names Notes
47 Akbunas Saba II 55 years 1985–1930 BC 3515–3570 Ahnahus Seba
Akhunas Saba
Ankhnas
  • Possibly Sheba, son of Joktan or otherwise a descendant of Joktan.
48 Nakehte Kalnis 40 years 1930–1890 BC 3570–3610 Nakhati Kalenso
Nekhite Kalas
49 Kasiyope (Queen) 19 years 1890–1871 BC 3610–3629 Cassiopeia
Kesayopi
  • Fourth female monarch on this regnal list.
  • Despite sharing a name with Cassiopeia, a queen of Aethiopia in Ancient Greek myth who was the wife of Cepheus and mother of Andromeda, Louis J. Morié's original narrative differentiates this queen from the more well-known Cassiopeia/"Kasiyope". Instead, "Kasiyope I" is the name given to an otherwise unnamed queen of Ethiopia who plotted the assassination of Osiris with Set according to one version of the Osiris myth recounted by Plutarch.
50 Sabe II 15 years 1871–1856 BC 3629–3644 Sebi Ayibe
  • Aleka Taye stated this king was the son of a man named "Amin", though it is unclear who this is meant to be.
51 Etiyopus I 56 years 1856–1800 BC 3644–3700 Ethiopis
Aethiopis
Atew
Ityepis
Itiyopp'is
  • An Ethiopian legend claims that "Ethiopia" is derived from the name of king Ethiopis. Likewise, Roman philosopher Pliny the Elder believed that the word "Aethiopia"/"Ethiopia" came from a king named Aethiopis, who was the son of the Roman god Vulcan.
  • Some Ethiopian traditions trace the word "Ethiopia" to Itan, a Ge'ez word for incense, a reference to the Ethiopian plateau which has long traded in incense.
  • One Ethiopian tradition states that Etiyopus was a son of Cush and grandson of Kam.
  • Another tradition additionally claims that Etiyopus' son was named Aksumawi, and he had a son named Malayka Aksum, who then had six sons named Sum, Nafas, Bagi'o, Kuduki, Akhoro and Farheba. The names of Etiyopus' son, grandson and great-grandsons are not found on Tafari's regnal list.
  • According to the Book of Axum, this king built Ethiopia's first capital, Mazaber.
  • Some Ethiopian regnal lists claim this king was the first to rule Ethiopia.
  • One tradition states Etiyopus was buried in Aksum and that fire used to burn in his grave.
52 Lakndun Nowarari 30 years 1800–1770 BC 3700–3730 Lakendun Nowar Ori
Lakundu Neworos
  • Peter Truhart seemingly identified this king with the mythical serpent of Ethiopian legend "Arwe", though it is unclear why.
53 Tutimheb 20 years 1770–1750 BC 3730–3750 Tehuti-em-heb
Thout-em-heb
Tharbos
  • Louis J. Morié claimed this king was the father of Tharbis, a Cushite princess who married Moses after he defeated the Aethiopians as head of the Egyptian army, according to a narrative by Josephus.
  • Peter Truhart stated that this king was deposed by the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep I, likely following Morié's narrative that this king was defeated by Mosesas the head of the army of Amenhotep I. However, the estimated reign dates of Amenhotep I (c. 1524–1503 BC) are far later than the reign dates of Tutimheb on this list.
54 Her Hator I 20 years 1750–1730 BC 3750–3770 Yotor
At-Hor
Hephaestus[172]
  • Ancient Greek god Hephaestus who was the father of Ethiopis according to Pliny the Elder.
  • Louis J. Morié claimed that the previous king "Thout-em-heb" was replaced by Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep I with one of the pharaoh's astronomers, "At-Hor", who is Jethro of the Bible. This would mean that At-Hor/Jethro was the father of Zipporah, wife of Moses, the latter having lead the army of Amenhotep I against Thout-em-heb/Tutimheb according to Morié's narrative. The author of the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list may have combined the two separate narratives of Hephaestus and Jethro into one king.
55 Etiyopus II 30 years 1730–1700 BC 3770–3800 Atew
Ityopis
56 Senuka I 17 years 1700–1683 BC 3800–3817 Senka Menkon
57 Bonu I 8 years 1683–1675 BC 3817–3825 BennuTsawente Ben(n)u
  • The name of this king is based on Bennu, an Egyptian god.
58 Mumazes (Queen) 4 years 1675–1671 BC 3825–3829 Moso
  • Daughter of Bonu I.
  • Fifth female monarch on this regnal list.
59 Aruas (Queen) 7 months 1671 BC 3829 Arwas
Aru'aso
  • Daughter of Mumazes according to Tafari.
  • However, Louis J. Morié originally claimed that Aruas was a son of Mumazes. Both Aleka Taye and Peter Truhart retained this identification on their respective regnal lists.
  • Sixth female monarch on this regnal list.
60 Amen Asro I 30 years 1671–1641 BC 3829–3859 Amanislo
Asru-meri-Amen
  • E. A. Wallis Budge believed this king to be identifiable with Amanislo, a Nubian king of Kush who ruled from c. 260 to 250 BC and whose name is inscribed on a granite lion statue currently held in the British Museum. Louis J. Morié however identified Amanislo with the second king named "Amen Asro" (no. 116).
  • In Louis J. Morié's original narrative this king ruled Egypt briefly for 2 years.
61 Ori II 30 years 1641–1611 BC 3859–3889 Aram
62 Piori II 15 years 1611–1596 BC 3889–3904 Paser I
Poeri
Perahu
  • Peter Truhart believed this king is identifiable with Perahu, the only known king of Punt, who was a contemporary of Pharaoh Hatshepsut (r. 1479–1458 BC).
  • However, Louis J. Morié's original narrative in Historie de l'Ethiopie, misidentified Paser I, Viceroy of Kush, as a reigning king of Aethiopia. Paser was the father of Amenemopet, who is named as the next king on this list, "Amen Emhat I". Paser was also in power during the reigns of Ay and Horemheb (c. 1323–1292 BC) and thus was alive over two and a half centuries after the dates on this regnal list.
63 Amen Emhat I 40 years 1596–1556 BC 3904–3944 Amenemopet
Aminswamhat Behas
  • Son of Paser/Piori II.
  • Louis J. Morié misidentified the Viceroys of Kush named Paser I and Amenemopet as reigning kings of Aethiopia (i.e. Kush). As such, the king "Amen Emhat I" is to be equated with Amenemopet, who followed his father Paser I/"Piori II" to power. Morié himself called Amenemopet by the name "Amen-em-hat".
  • Amenemopet was Viceroy of Kush during the reign of Seti I (c. 1290–1279 BC).
64 Tsawi I 15 years 1556–1541 BC 3944–3959 Dawe
  • Not numbered on Tafari's list.
65 Aktissanis 10 years 1541–1531 BC 3959–3969 Actisanes
Aktisanes
Oktisanisa
  • Legendary king of Aethiopia who, according to Diodorus, defeated the Egyptian Pharaoh Ahmose II. While the reign of Ahmose II was much later than the dates for Aktissanis on this list, the reign of Ahmose I (c. 1550–1525 BC) did take place around this time.
  • "Actisanes" was possibly based on the historical Kushite king Aktisanes who ruled Nubia in the early third century BC.
66 Mandes 17 years 1531–1514 BC 3969–3986 Minos?
67 Protawos 33 years 1514–1481 BC 3986–4019 Pretowes Seshul
68 Amoy I 21 years 1481–1460 BC 4019–4040 Amoya
69 Konsi Hendawi 5 years 1460–1455 BC 4040–4045
  • This king's name means "Konsi the Indian".
  • According to Louis J. Morié's narrative, this king arrived in Aethiopia as part of a Hindu colony and was a son of the goddess Ganga.
  • The name "Konsi" is based on the name of the Egyptian god Khonsu.
70 Bonu II 2 years 1455–1453 BC 4045–4043 Bennou
Phoenix
Belus
  • Louis J. Morié identified this king as several different legendary characters from Greek mythology, specifically Phoenix (son of the king of Tyre), Belus (King of Egypt), Aleus (King of Arcadia), Polydorus (King of Thebes) and Argus (King of Argos). Both Belus and Phoenix have been identified in different sources as the father of Cepheus, the next ruler on this regnal list.
71 Sebi III (Kefe) 15 years 1453–1438 BC 4047–4062 Cepheus
72 Djagons 20 years 1438–1418 BC 4062–4082 Se-Khons (Gigon)
Jagonso
Jagonis Sekones
Danaus?
  • Possibly Danaus, a king of Libya from Greek mythology who is sometimes named as a brother of Cepheus and son of Belus.
73 Senuka II 10 years 1418–1408 BC 4082–4092 Snouka-Menken
Raskhoperen
Senuka Felias
Sanuka
  • Peter Truhart stated this king invaded Egypt during the reign of pharaoh Amenmesse, likely following Louis J. Morié's narrative that this king ruled Egypt during the first three years of his reign after defeating Amenmesse, although Amenmesse actually reigned more than two centuries after the dates of Senuka II on this regnal list.
74 Angabo I
(Zaka Laarwe)
50 years 1408–1358 BC 4092–4142 Za Besi Angabo
Angabos
Agabo
Angad
Za on Zia-Bisi-Angaba
  • King who killed a mythical serpent called Arwe or Wainaba in native Abyssinian/Ethiopian tradition.
  • Some sources claim that this ruler was the founder of a new dynasty in 1370 BC.
  • Some variations of the Arwe myth claim that Angabo was of non-royal origin and was made king as reward for slaying Arwe. This version of the legend states that Angabo was a stranger who saved Makeda (the future Queen of Sheba) from being sacrificed to Arwe and that her father was chief minister to king "Za Sebado".
  • Some Ethiopian sources place Arwe at the beginning of Ethiopian history, though this is obviously not the case with Tafari's list.
  • Some traditions claim that Angabo was king for 200 years.
  • According to Aleka Taye, Angabo was the son of "Adhana", though it is unclear what their relation, if any, is to this dynastic line.
  • According to some Ethiopian traditions, Angabo was the father of Makeda.
75 Miamur 2 days 1358 BC 4142
76 Helena (Queen) 11 years 1358–1347 BC 4142–4153 Belina
Kalina
Eleni?
  • Seventh female monarch on this regnal list.
77 Zagdur I 40 years 1347–1307 BC 4153–4193 Gedur
Za-Gedur
Zabagdour
Bagdour
  • Son of Angabo I.
  • Some Ethiopian traditions claim that this king ruled for 100 years.
  • According to Aleka Taye, this king devised the phonetic Ge'ez alphabet.
78 Her Hator II 30 years 1307–1277 BC 4193–4223 Erythras
Herhator Ertas
  • Grandson of Sebi III (Kefe) and son of Andromeda and Perseus according to Louis J. Morié.
  • However, Louis J. Morié also identified this king with Erythras, who was the son of Perseus and Amphimedusa, daughter of Danaus and granddaughter of Belus.
79 Her Hator III 1 year 1277–1276 BC 4223–4224 Herhator Zesbado
Erythras
  • Nephew of Her Hator II and son of Perses (son of Andromeda and Perseus).
  • Erroneously called "Her Hator (Za Sagado) III" on Tafari's list.
80 Akate
(Za Sagado)
20 years 1276–1256 BC 4224–4244 Zazebass Besaso
Sebado
Za-Sebadho
Sabaruth
Nycteus
Nakhti
Epopeus
Nikti Zesbado
  • Mistakenly numbered "Akate (Za Sagado) IV" by Tafari. This is likely due to Louis J. Morié's original narrative which named a king called "Nekhti IV" as the successor of "Her Hator III".
  • Sagado is the name of a mountain in the Amhara region.
  • Some Ethiopian traditions claim this king reigned for 50 years.
  • The name "Akate" could be based on "Nycteus", as following Louis J. Morié's narrative and line succession for the kings of Aethiopia, while "Za Sagado" is likely based on "Sebado", the name of one of the successors of Angabo in native Abyssinian/Ethiopian tradition.
81 Titon Satiyo 10 years 1256–1246 BC 4244–4254 Tetouni
Doudoni
Tinton Sotio
Tithonus
  • Tithonus, prince of Troy and father of Memnon and Emathion in Greek mythology. Louis J. Morié claimed he attempted to conquer Aethiopia but was taken prisoner by "Nekhti IV" (identifiable with "Akate IV" on this list). However, the daughter of the Aethiopian king wished to marry him, so he was freed and later became king.
  • Morié also claimed that this king ruled parts of Upper Egypt during the reign of pharaoh Amenmesse. However, Amenmesse actually reigned over half a century after the dates on this regnal list.
82 Hermantu 5 months 1246 BC 4254 Emathion
  • Emathion, a king of Aethiopia in Greek mythology who was a son of Tithonus (no. 81) and brother of Memnon (no. 83).
  • Mistakenly numbered "Hermantu I" by Tafari.
  • An illegitimate son of Titon Satiyo according to Louis J. Morié's narrative.
  • Ethiopian historian Fisseha Yaze Kassa stated that this king reigned for only 1 month. One version of Heruy Wolde Selassie's regnal list also lists a 1-month reign for this king while another lists 5 months. Manfred Kropp [de] theorized that the confusion could be a transcibal error resulting from the similarity of the Ethiopian numbers for 1 and 5.
83 Amen Emhat II 5 years 1246–1241 BC 4254–4259 Memnon
Amenemhat-Meiamoun
  • Greek mythical figure Memnon, who was king of Aethiopia and fought in the Trojan war. He was a son of Tithonus (no. 81 on this regnal list) and brother of Emathion (no. 82).
  • Historian Martin Bernal, in his controversial work Black Athena, argued that it was possible for the name "Memnon" to have originated from the Egyptian name "Amenemhat".
84 Konsab 5 years 1241–1236 BC 4259–4264 Khons-Ab
Kus-awil-dendan
  • Son of Akate Za Sagado.
  • Name means "Heart of Khons".
  • Mistakenly named "Konsab I" on Tafari's list.
85 Sannib 5 years 1236–1231 BC 4264–4269 Konseb
Khons-Ab
  • This king's name could be an error. Aleka Taye called this king "Konseb II" rather than Sannib and this may explain why Tafari called this king "Sannib II" on his regnal list despite no prior king named Sannib appearing on this regnal list. This also may be why he refers to the prior king as "Konsab I" despite no further kings of name appearing on this list. It is possible that "Sannib" may be a mistakenly transcribed name combining the prior king "Konsab" with the next king "Sanuka".
86 Senuka III 5 years 1231–1226 BC 4269–4274 Snouka-Menken
87 Angabo II 40 years 1226–1186 BC 4274–4314 Angabo Hezbay
88 Amen Astate 30 years 1186–1156 BC 4314–4244 Amenhotep
Amen-As-Tat
Monostatos
  • Egyptian High Priest of Amun Amenhotep.
  • According to Ethiopian historian Tekletsadiq Mekuria, this king was the father of Herihor. However, there is no archaeological evidence to prove this.
  • Louis J. Morié's narrative in Historie de l'Éthiopie did not identify Amen Astate with the High Priest of Amun Amenhotep and instead claimed there was a gap of 130 years between this king and "Her-Hor".
89 Herhor 16 years 1156–1140 BC 4244–4360 Herihor
Arhor
  • Egyptian High Priest of Amun Herihor.
  • Herihor was the de facto ruler of Upper Egypt during the time of the Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt. Mainstream Egyptologists however place his reign much later compared to this regnal list (c. 1080–1074 BC). He is also now believed to have succeeded Piankh rather than preceded him.
  • Herihor and his successors maintained rule of Upper Egypt for over 130 years, though there is no evidence their rule extended to the area of modern-day Ethiopia.
  • Herihor was also Viceroy of Kush during the reign of Ramesses XI.
90 Piyankihi I 9 years 1140–1131 BC 4360–4369 Piankh
Piyankihi
Piyankiya
Pianki Henquqay
  • Egyptian High Priest of Amun Piankh, who is believed by Egyptologists to have ruled Upper Egypt from c. 1074 to c. 1070 BC, over half a century after the dates on this list.
  • Piankh was also Viceroy of Kush and led a campaign into Nubia.
  • Name written as "Wiyankihi" on Tafari's list.
91 Pinotsem I 17 years 1131–1114 BC 4369–4386 Pinedjem
Tenot Sem
Pinotsem Meiamoun
  • Egyptian High Priest of Amun Pinedjem I, who is believed by Egyptologists to have ruled Upper Egypt from c. 1070 to c. 1032 BC
  • Son of Piankh.
92 Pinotsem II 41 years 1114–1073 BC 4386–4427 Tenot Sem
Pinedjem
Pinotsem Meiamoun
  • Although there was a second High Priest of Amun named Pinedjem, his line of succession fits more closely with the position of Pinotsem III below.
  • Manfred Kropp [de] noted that the existence of a third High Priest of Amun named Pinedjem was an error in late 19th-century Egyptology, which suggests that the writer of Tafari's regnal list had used European sources for compiling the list.
  • Louis J. Morié's narrative in Historie de l'Éthiopie claimed this king was a son of Pinotsem I.
93 Massaherta 16 years 1073–1057 BC 4427–4443 Masaharta
Mashirtar Tuklay
  • Egyptian High Priest of Amun Masaharta, who is believed by Egyptologists to have succeeded Pinedjem I and to have ruled Upper Egypt from c. 1054 to c. 1045 BC
  • Son of Pinedjem I/Pinotsem I.
  • Louis J. Morié's narrative in Historie de l'Éthiopie claimed this king was a son of Pinotsem II.
94 Ramenkoperm 14 years 1057–1043 BC 4443–4457 Menkheperre
Ramenkopirm Sehel
  • Egyptian High Priest of Amun Menkheperre, who came to power shortly after the end of Masaharta's reign (though not a direct successor) and is believed by Egyptologists to have ruled Upper Egypt from c. 1045 to c. 992 BC
  • Son of Pinedjem I.
  • Louis J. Morié's narrative in Historie de l'Éthiopie claimed this king was a son of Pinotsem II.
95 Pinotsem III 7 years 1043–1036 BC 4457–4464 Pinedjem
Tenot Sem
  • Egyptian High Priest of Amun Pinedjem II, who is believed by Egyptologists to have ruled Upper Egypt from c. 990 to c. 976 BC
  • His predecessor Nesbanebdjed II is not included on this regnal list.
  • Son of Menkheperre.
96 Sabe IV 10 years 1036–1026 BC 4464–4474 Pasebakhaennuit
Psusennes
Za Sebadh
  • Egyptian High Priest of Amun Pasebakhaennuit III, who succeeded Pinedjem II and is believed by Egyptologists to have ruled Upper Egypt from c. 976 to c. 943 BC
97 Tawasya Dews 13 years 1026–1013 BC 4474–4487 Zakawsya b'Axum
Kawnasya
Tawasya
Za Qawasya
Zakaouasya
Kavasya
Aboul-Foutouh-Ouaschy
Rouzouan-Shah
  • Some Ethiopian traditions claim this king ruled for only 1 year.
  • Father of Makeda.
98 Makeda (Queen) 31 years 1013–982 BC 4487–4518 Za Makeda
Makeka
Magueda
Saba
Nicaula
Azis
Kantakeh
Bilqis
Balqis
Baltis
  • Daughter of Tawasaya Dews.
  • Eighth female monarch on this regnal list.
  • The Biblical Queen of Sheba in Ethiopian tradition. She is believed by Ethiopians to have visited king Solomon of Israel and had a son with him named Menelik.
  • According to some Ethiopian traditions, Makeda's father was named Angabos and he became king of Ethiopia after killing the serpent king Arwe.
  • One version of the tradition states her father was chief minister to king "Za Sebado" and she was rescued from the serpent Arwe by Angabo, who later became king.
  • The Kebra Nagast refers to this queen as the "Queen of the South [who] was the Queen of Ethiopia". In this text she is described as "very beautiful in face", having a "superb" stature and possessing intelligence and understanding of "high character". Because of this she travelled to Jerusalem to "hear the wisdom of Solomon". The Kebra Nagast also states that she was very rich and traded "by sea and by land" to regions such as India and Aswan in Egypt.
  • An alternate tradition states that Makeda ruled for 50 years, dying in c. 955 BC, aged about 60.
  • According to the Kebra Nagast, she also supposedly forbade women from ruling Ethiopia in the future, though this is contradicted by thirteen reigning queens who appear later in this list. The Kebra Nagast claims that she abdicated in favour of her son Menelik I.
  • E. A. Wallis Budge theorised that the name "Makeda" may be based on "Maatkare", the throne name of pharaoh Hatshepsut. Alternatively, the name may be based on "mlkt", a Sabaean term for "queen" that appears on some Sabaean inscriptions.
  • According to the Book of Axum, Makeda rebuilt Axum in the territory of Aseba and this was the reason why the Bible refers to her as the "Queen of Saba" and "Queen of Azeb" (i.e. South).
  • Louis J. Morié noted Makeda is sometimes known as "Kandake" or "Candace", but he believed this was an alteration of her name "[Ma] Keda".
"Of the posterity of Ori up to the reign of Makeda 98 sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia before the advent of Menelik I."

Dynasty of Menelik I (1,475 years)

A new dynasty begins with Menelik I, son of Queen Makeda and King Solomon. The Ethiopian monarchy claimed a line of descent from Menelik that remained unbroken – except for the reign of Queen Gudit and the Zagwe dynasty — until the monarchy's dissolution in 1975. Tafari's 1922 regnal list divides up the Menelik dynasty into three sections:

  • Monarchs who reigned before the birth of Christ (982 BC–9 AD)
  • Monarchs who reigned after the birth of Christ (9–306 AD)
  • Monarchs who were Christian themselves (306–493 AD).

Additionally, a fourth line of monarchs descending from Kaleb is listed as a separate dynasty on this regnal list but most Ethiopian regnal lists do not acknowledge any dynastic break between Kaleb and earlier monarchs. This line of monarchs is dated to 493–920 AD and is made up of the last kings to rule Axum before it was sacked by Queen Gudit. The line of Menelik was restored, according to tradition, with the accession of Yekuno Amlak.

Heruy Wolde Selassie considered Makeda to be the first of a new dynasty instead of Menelik.

Monarchs who reigned before the birth of Christ (991 years)

The Ark of the Covenant arriving in Ethiopia with Menelik I.

Ethiopian tradition credits Makeda with being the first Ethiopian monarch to convert to Judaism after her visit to king Solomon, before which she had been worshipping Sabaean gods. However, Judaism did not become the official religion of Ethiopia until Makeda's son Menelik brought the Ark of the Covenant to Ethiopia. While Ethiopian tradition asserts that the kings following Menelik maintained the Jewish religion, there is no evidence that this was the case and virtually nothing is known of Menelik's successors and their religious beliefs.

Other Ethiopian regnal lists, based on either oral or textual tradition, present an alternate order and numbering of the kings of this dynasty (see Regnal lists of Ethiopia). If any other Ethiopian regnal list is taken individually, then the number of monarchs from Menelik I to Bazen is not enough to realistically cover the claimed time period from the 10th century BC to the birth of Jesus Christ. Tafari's list tries to bring together various different regnal lists into one larger list by naming the majority of kings that are scattered across various oral and textual records regarding the line of succession from Menelik. The result is a more realistic number of monarchs reigning over the course of ten centuries. Of the 67 monarchs on Tafari's list from Menelik I to Bazen, at least 40 are attested on pre-20th century Ethiopian regnal lists.

Tafari's regnal list names various Nubian/Kushite and Egyptian rulers as part of Menelik's dynasty. These Nubian and Egyptian rulers did not follow the Jewish religion, so their status as alleged successors of Menelik calls into question how strong the 'Judaisation' of Ethiopia truly was in Menelik's reign. These kings do not have Egyptian and Nubian elements in their names on regnal lists from before the 20th century and these elements were only added in 1922 to provide a stronger link to ancient Kush. Louis J. Morié's book Histoire de l'Éthiopie clearly influenced the names and regnal order of this section of the regnal list, as it had also influenced previous dynasties. The author of the 1922 regnal list combined Morié's line of kings with pre-existing Axumite regnal lists to form a longer line of monarchs from Menelik I's reign in the 10th century BC to Bazen's reign which coincided with the birth of Christ. In many cases, kings from Morié's book are combined with different kings from the Axumite regnal lists.

Peter Truhart, in his book Regents of Nations, believed that an "Era of Nubian Supremacy" began with the reign of Amen Hotep Zagdur, as from this point onwards many kings' names show clear links to the kings of Napata and Kush. Truhart believed that the kings from Safelya Sabakon to Apras were likely related to or possibly identifiable with the Pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth dynasties (c. 730–525 BC). He additionally believed that an "Era of Meroen Influence" began with the reign of Kashta Walda Ahuhu.

Some historians refer to this dynasty as the "Solomon" dynasty, in reference to its claimed descent from king Solomon and because of the use of the term to the refer to the later Solomonic dynasty that was descended from this earlier line of kings.

No.
Name
Picture Length of reign
Reign dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
"Year of the World"
Alternate names Notes
99 Menelik I 25 years 982–957 BC 4518–4543 Ebna El-Hakim
Ibn Hakim
Dawit
David
Daoud
Menilehec
Menileh
  • According to Ethiopian tradition, Menelik was the son of Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, and King Solomon of Israel.
  • The Kebra Nagast states he ruled in the 10th century BC, which matches with the dates listed here.
  • Some Ethiopian traditions state Menelik founded Aksum, while some chronicles claim this was done by Solomon.
  • Peter Truhart dated the beginning of Menelik's reign to c. 950 BC.
  • Other regnal lists claim Menelik's reign lasted between 4 and 29 years.
100 Hanyon I 1 year 957–956 BC 4543–4544 Handeyon
Za Handadyo
Zagdur
  • Other regnal lists claim this king's reign lasted to between 1 and 8 years.
  • Not numbered by Tafari.
101 Sera I (Tomai) 26 years 956–930 BC 4544–4570 Sirah Tomay
Ab-Rakid
Tomas
Zerakh
Zerah
  • Son of Menelik I.
  • At least one Ethiopian regnal list claims he ruled for 15 years.
  • The name "Sera" was not used for this king prior to the 1922 regnal list. The decision to add this name was influenced by Louis J. Morié's book Histoire de l'Éthiopie, which inspired much of the regnal list as a whole. Morié believed a king named "Atserk-Amen I" (who he identified with the Biblical Zerah the Cushite) had reigned directly before kings named "Amenhotep" and "Ramissu" (the next two kings on this regnal list) and had failed to conquer the Kingdom of Judah during the reign of Asa, as mentioned in the Book of Chronicles (2 Chronicles 14:9–15). However, the reign dates for Sera I on this regnal list are too early to align with the commonly accepted reign dates of Asa among modern-day archaeologists (c. 911–870 BC).
102 Amen Hotep Zagdur II 31 years 930–899 BC 4570–4601 Zagduru
Za-Gedur
Amenhotep
Barakid
  • Only known as "Zagdur" or "Zagduru" on pre-20th century regnal lists. The addition of the name "Amen Hotep" was done to closer match the narrative of Louis J. Morié's book Histoire de l'Éthiopie, which claimed that a king called "Amenhotep" ruled Aethiopia in the late 10th and early 9th centuries BC.
  • This king may be identifiable with the Aksumite king GDRT, who appears in some regnal lists under the name "Gedur", "Zegdur" or "Zegduru" ("Ze" meaning "of" in Ge'ez). However the estimated period of GDRT's reign used by archeologists (c. 200 AD), more closely matches the similarly named king "Gaza Agdur" who appears as the 188th monarch on this list.
  • One version of Heruy Wolde Selassie's regnal list and Aleka Taye's regnal list both state that this king ruled for 41 years, from 930 to 889 BC, resulting in all of the following monarchs of this dynasty until Safelya Sabakon (no. 122) having their reign dates pushed forward by 10 years compared to Tafari's list.
  • Not numbered by Tafari.
103 Aksumay Ramissu 20 years 899–879 BC 4601–4621 Aksumay
Za Awda
Aouda-Amat
"The Aksumite"
  • This king's name references both the kingdom of Aksum and the Egyptian Pharaohs named Ramesses who ruled Egypt during the Nineteenth and Twentieth dynasties.
  • Only known as "Aksumay" on pre-20th century Ethiopian regnal lists. The addition of "Ramissu" to his name is due to the regnal list being influenced by Louis J. Morié's book Histoire de l'Éthiopie, which claimed a king called "Ramessou" ruled Aethiopia in the 9th century BC and succeeded king "Amenhotep".
104 Awseyo Sera II 38 years 879–841 BC 4621–4659 Sirah
Za Awesyo
Awsabyos
Aufyi
Za Awsyu
  • Only known as "Awesyo", "Awsabyos" or "Aufyi" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
  • The decision to add "Sera" to this king's name was influenced by Louis J. Morié's Histoire de l'Éthiopie, which claimed that king "Ramessou" was succeeded by "Atserk-Amen II" (otherwise known as "Zerakh II"), who launched a second invasion of Judah and carried off the family of Jehoram, as related in the Bible. The reign dates for Awseyo Sera II roughly correspond with the modern estimated reign dates for Jehoram (c. 849–842 BC).
105 Tawasya II 21 years 841–820 BC 4659–4680 Tawasaya
Za Sawe
Ta'asya
Tahawasya
106 Abralyus Piyankihi II 32 years 820–788 BC 4680–4712 Piye
Piankhi
Abralyus
Abraham
Abramyos
Abralios Piankhi
Abralyos Piyankiya
  • Piye or "Piankhi", a historical Kushite king who ruled Nubia from c. 744 to 714 BC and conquered Egypt in c. 720 BC, founding the Twenty-fifth dynasty.
  • Only known as "Abralyus" on pre-20th century Ethiopian regnal lists.
  • Name written as "Abralyus Wiyankihi" on Tafari's list.
107 Aksumay Warada Tsahay 23 years 788–765 BC 4712–4735 Aksumay Werede Tsehay
Warada Dahay
Ouarada-Tsahai
  • The second king on this list whose name references the ancient kingdom of Aksum.
  • This king reinstated the ancient cults after Aethiopia had been following Judaism since the reign of Menelik I.
  • Only known as "Warada Tsahay" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
108 Kashta Hanyon II 13 years 765–752 BC 4735–4748 Kashta
Kaseheta Handeyon
Handadyo
Kaschata
  • Historical Kushite king Kashta who was Piye/Piankhi's immediate predecessor.
  • Only known as "Hanyon" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
  • Not numbered on Tafari's list.
109 Sabaka 12 years 752–740 BC 4748–4760 Shabaka
  • Historical Kushite Pharaoh Shabaka who ruled Nubia and Egypt from 705 to 690 BC and was a son of Shebitku.
  • Some historians have theorized that there may be some affinity between the word "Saba" and the name of the so-called Aethiopian king Sabaka.
110 Nicauta Kandake I (Queen) 10 years 740–730 BC 4760–4770 Nikanta Qendeke
Amenirdis I
  • Ninth female monarch on this regnal list.
  • The first of 6 Queens on this list named Kandake, the Meroitic term for the sister of the king of Kush who sometimes ruled over Kush and Nubia as regent or as a monarch in her own right. None of the reigning Kandakes are known to have ruled as far back as the 8th century BC, with the earliest known reigning queen of Kush having ruled during the 2nd century BC.
  • The inclusion of this queen on this regnal list may be inspired by Louis J. Morié's claim that Amenirdis I was a "Kantakeh" queen who ruled as regent during the reigns of three Aethiopian kings. In reality Amenirdis was a God's Wife of Amun during the time of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt. She was a daughter of Kashta.
111 Tsawi Terhak Warada Nagash 49 years 730–681 BC 4770–4819 Taharqa
Dawe' Tirhaq (Werede Negash)
Sawe
Za Tsawe
Warada Nagasha
Wurrod-Negush
112 Erda Amen Awseya 6 years 681–675 BC 4819–4825 Asanya
Ardamen Awseya
Ourd-Amen
Roud-Amen

Aousanya
Aouseyo

  • Son-in-law of Taharqa (Tsawi Terhak) according to Louis J. Morié's narrative.
  • E. A. Wallis Budge believed this king to be Rudamun, a Libyan pharaoh of the Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt. Louis J. Morié certainly used "Roud-Amen" as an alternate name for this king. Rudamun ruled over Upper Egypt from c. 759 to c. 755 BC, more than 70 years before the dates on this regnal list, and is not known to have extended any influence over Nubia.
  • Only known as "Awseya" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
113 Gasiyo Eskikatir Gesiyo
Gasyo
Za Gasyo
Za Gesyu
Basilius
Basilo
Basyo
  • The only monarch on this regnal list with no dates.
  • "Eskikatir" means "until Noon" or "until Midday".
  • Ethiopian historians Aleka Taye and Fisseha Yaze Kassa both state that this king reigned for only six hours.
  • Peter Truhart stated that this king reigned for half a day.
114 Nuatmeawn 4 years 675–671 BC 4825–4829 Tantamani
Nuatmiomun
Nuatmiamen
Za Mawat
Mouta
Za Maute
Nouat-Meiamoun
  • Historical Kushite Pharaoh Tantamani, who ruled Nubia from 664 to 653 BC and ruled Egypt from the beginning of his reign until he lost control of it in 656 BC.
  • Peter Truhart identified this king with "Za Mawat", who appears on some Ethiopian regnal lists.
  • Other regnal lists claim the reign of "Mawat"/"Maute" lasted from 8 years and 4 months to 20 years and 1 month.
115 Tomadyon Piyankihi III 12 years 671–659 BC 4829–4841 Toma Dahay
Toma Seyon
Tomaseyon Piyankiha
  • Only known as "Tomadyon" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
  • Husband of Amenirdis I in Louis J. Morié's narrative.
  • "Toma-Seyon" means "Twin of Zion".
116 Amen Asro II 16 years 659–643 BC 4841–4857 Amanislo
Amenosro
  • Historical Kushite king Amanislo,. who reigned in the 3rd century BC.
  • Name written as "Amen Asero" on Tafari's list.
  • Not numbered by Tafari.
117 Piyankihi IV (Awtet) 34 years 643–609 BC 4857–4891 Piankhi IV (Awtio)
Biyankiya (Awteyo)
  • Son of Piyankihi III and Amenirdis I in Louis J. Morié's narrative.
118 Zaware Nebret Aspurta 41 years 609–568 BC 4891–4932 Aspelta
Zuwarenbret Aspurta
  • Historical Kushite king Aspelta, who ruled Nubia from c. 600 to c. 580 BC.
  • "Zaware Nebrat" means "seed of the High Priest" according to Louis J. Morié.
119 Saifay Harsiataw 12 years 568–556 BC 4932–4944 Harsiotef
Serfay Harsiatew
Horsiatew
Scifi
  • Historical Kushite king Harsiotef, who ruled Nubia from c. 404 to c. 369 BC.
120 Ramhay Nastossanan 14 years 556–542 BC 4944–4958 Nastasen
Ramahay Rami
  • Historical Kushite king Nastasen, who ruled Nubia from c. 335 to c. 315 BC.
  • An unpublished chronicle from Aksum states that a king named "Ramahay" reigned at the time of Alexander the Great and asked for Greek technicians and engineers to build palaces, monuments and stelae, one of which was destroyed centuries later by Gudit. Alexander's rule of Egypt did not take place until 332 BC, over two centuries after these dates, and thus either the dating is wrong or this legend refers to the second king named Ramhay on this list (no. 145). Perhaps coincidentally, the Nubian king Nastasen did in fact reign during the time of Alexander the Great. It is unknown if this is the reason why the author of this regnal list associated Nastasen with Ramahay despite the Nubian king's absence on earlier Ethiopian regnal lists.
121 Handu Wuha Abra 11 years 542–531 BC 4958–4969 Handar
Handew Abra
Handiwa'bra
Haduna
Artsé
122 Safelya Sabakon 31 years 531–500 BC 4969–5000 Sofelia Nekibon
Zafelya Sabakon
Sofelya Nabikon
  • An alternate name for Nubian pharaoh Shabaka, as used by Diodorus in his work Bibliothecia Historia.
123 Agalbus Sepekos 22 years 500–478 BC 5000–5022 Shebitku?
Agelbul Sewekos
  • Peter Truhart identified this king with a Pharaoh of the Twenty-fifth or Twenty-sixth dynasties. Truhart may be referreing to Shebitku.
  • One version of Heruy Wolde Selassie's regnal list and Aleka Taye's regnal list state that this king reigned for 21 years, from 490 to 469 BC This, combined with the addition of 10 years to Amen Hotep Zagdur's reign earlier, results in all monarchs of this dynasty until Feliya Hernekhit (no. 146) on Selassie's list and Queen Nicotnis Kandake V (no. 162) on Taye's list having their reign dates pushed forward by 11 years compared to Tafari's list.
124 Psmenit Warada Nagash 21 years 478–457 BC 5022–5043 Psmeret (Werede Negash)
  • Possibly based on one of the pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth dynasty named "Psamtik". If this is the case, then this king could be Psamtik II, who invaded Kush in 592 BC and sacked Napata.
  • Name written as "waradanegash" on Tafari's list.
125 Awseya Tarakos 12 years 457–445 BC 5043–5055 Asanya
Awesya
Awesia Burakos
  • Possibly an alternate name for Taharqa.
  • Only known as "Awseya" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
126 Kanaz Psmis 13 years 445–432 BC 5055–5068 Qaniz Peshmez
Qeniz Pismes
Katzina
Kanazi
Za Qanaz
Kanati
  • Son of Awseya Tarakos.
  • Other regnal lists claim this king's reign lasted 9 or 10 years.
127 Apras 10 years 432–422 BC 5068–5078 Apries
Apraso
128 Kashta Walda Ahuhu 20 years 422–402 BC 5078–5098 Walda Mehrat
Keshita Welde Equh
Kasheta Walda Ekhuhu
129 Elalion Taake 10 years 402–392 BC 5098–5108 Taaaken
Elalion Te'niki
Elalior
Ilalyos
  • Restored Judaism as the official religion of Aethiopia.
  • Only known as "Elalion" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
130 Atserk Amen III 10 years 392–382 BC 5108–5118 Atsirkamin
  • Peter Truhart re-numbered this king as "Atserk Amen I", likely because no king of this name appears earlier on the 1922 regnal list.
  • The confusion over the numbering of the kings named "Atserk Amen" stems from the numbering used by Louis J. Morié, who named this king the third to use this name. However the first two kings named "Atserk Amen" in his narrative were renamed to "Sera I (Tomai)" (no. 101) and "Awseyo Sera II" (no. 104) on the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list.
  • Truhart also believed that the four kings named "Atserk Amen" were based on the name of a Merotic king, though does not specify who.
131 Atserk Amen IV 10 years 382–372 BC 5118–5128 Atsirkamin
132 Hadina (Queen) 10 years 372–362 BC 5128–5138 Haduna
Za Hadena
  • Tenth female monarch on this regnal list.
  • Other regnal lists claim this monarch ruled for 9 years.
133 Atserk Amen V 10 years 362–352 BC 5138–5148 Atsirkamin
134 Atserk Amen VI 10 years 352–342 BC 5148–5158 Atsirkamin
135 Nikawla Kandake II (Queen) 10 years 342–332 BC 5158–5168 Kantakeh
Kandake
Candace
  • Eleventh female monarch on this regnal list.
  • The name "Nicaula" was sometimes used to refer to the Queen of Sheba. Giovanni Boccaccio, in his work De Mulieribus Claris (1361–1362), claimed that queen "Nicaula" was queen of Aethiopia, Egypt and Arabia and had a large palace on the island of Meroe. The Queen of Sheba was also called "Nicaula" in The Book of the City of Ladies (1405) by Christine de Pizan and A New History of Ethiopia (1684) by Hiob Ludolf, the latter doubting Giovanni Boccaccio's claim that "Nicaula" was also queen of Egypt.
  • Based on the dating given on this list, this queen may the Kandake who was said to have fought Alexander the Great, according to the Alexander Romance. However, in reality Alexander never attempted to conquer Nubia.
  • Portuguese missionary Jerónimo Lobo noted that contemporary Abyssinians/Ethiopians in the 17th century sometimes used the name "Nicaula" for the Queen of Sheba, alongside the names "Makeda" and "Nagista Azeb".
  • Louis J. Morié's narrative claimed that this queen married Alexander and he was recognised as ruler of Aethiopia, though he personally never had the chance to visit there.
136 Bassyo 7 years 332–325 BC 5168–5175 Za Bahas
Ba'os
Basei
Bas'u
137 Akawsis Kandake III (Queen) 10 years 325–315 BC 5175–5185 Nikawsis Qendeke
Akawkis Qendeke
Kantakeh III
Candance
Kandake
  • Twelfth female monarch on this regnal list.
  • In Louis J. Morié's original narrative, this queen was the Kandake who fought against the Romans and Gaius Petronius. However, the 1922 regnal list pushes this queen's reign dates back by nearly three centuries and therefore she can not be identified with this particular queen.
138 Arkamen I 10 years 315–305 BC 5185–5195 Erk-Amen
Ergamenes
Arqamani
  • Louis J. Morié's original narrative identified this king with Ergamenes, a Kushite king mentioned in the writings of Diodorus Siculus. Modern-day archaeologists consider Arqamani to be the most likely king of Kush that the story of Ergamenes is based on.
  • Aleka Taye swapped this king's position with Awtet Arawura below.
139 Awtet Arawura 10 years 305–295 BC 5195–5205 Awtet Arawra
Awestet
Awetet
  • Only known as "Awtet" on pre-20th century Ethiopian regnal lists.
  • Aleka Taye swapped this king's position with Arkamen above.
140 Kolas (Koletro) 10 years 295–285 BC 5205–5215 Kels'a (Kelitro)

Kalas
Za Kal'aku
Kalas Kalito

  • Other regnal lists claim this king ruled for 6 years.
141 Zaware Nebrat II 16 years 285–269 BC 5215–5231 Zewarienebret
  • Name written as "Zawre Nebrat" on Tafari's list.
142 Stiyo 14 years 269–255 BC 5231–5245 Stoyo
Sotio
Satyo
Za Satyo
Solaya
  • Other regnal lists claim this king ruled for 16 years.
143 Safay 13 years 255–242 BC 5245–5258 Sayfay
Sodofay
144 Nikosis Kandake IV (Queen) 10 years 242–232 BC 5258–5268 Nikosis Qendeke
Kantakeh
Kandake
Candace
  • Thirteenth female monarch on this regnal list.
145 Ramhay Arkamen II 10 years 232–222 BC 5268–5278 Arakamani
Ergamenes
Ramahay
Remhay Armin
  • Likely a Kushite king, either Arakamani or Arqamani, who ruled Kush in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC
  • However, it is more likely this king is intended to be Arakamani, often equated with Ergamenes, a Nubian king reported by Greek historian Agatharchides to have reigned during the time of Pharaoh Ptolemy IV of Egypt (r. 221–204 BC).
  • An unpublished chronicle from Axum states that a king named "Ramahay" reigned at the time of Alexander the Great and asked for Greek technicians and engineers to build palaces, monuments and stelae, one of which was destroyed centuries later by Gudit. Alexander's rule of Egypt took place during 332–323 BC, and thus this king's reign is a century too late to be a contemporary of Alexander. However, this story of king Ramahay bears notable similarities with the story of Ergamenes, who was said to have been instructed in Greek philosophy, interested in Greek art and the general Greek way of life. It is therefore possible that naming this king "Ramhay Arkamen" is intended to reflect that "Ramahay" is to be identified with "Ergamenes".
  • Only known as "Ramhay" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
  • In Louis J. Morié's narrative, this king was the son of queen Kandake IV.
146 Feliya Hernekhit 15 years 222–207 BC 5278–5293 Falaya
Za Filya
Fielya Hurnekhet
Felya Hurnekeht
Safelia
  • Other regnal lists state this king reigned for 26 years.
147 Hende Awkerara 20 years 207–187 BC 5293–5313 Henden
Handu
Ouikera
Hende(n) Awkerarq
Hendor
  • Son of Feliya Hernekhit.
  • One version of Heruy Wolde Selassie's regnal list claims this king reigned for 22 years. This, along with the addition of 10 years to the reign of Amen Hotep Zagdur (no. 102) and the removal of 1 year from the reign of Agalbus Sepekos (no. 123) results in all monarchs up to Queen Nicotnis Kandake V (no. 162) having their reign dates pushed forward by 11 years compared to Tafari's list.
148 Agabu Baseheran 10 years 187–177 BC 5313–5323 Aghabu Bisehran
Bahas
Za Bahse
Za Bahas
  • Son of Hende Awkerara.
  • Only known as "Bahas" on pre-20th century Ethiopian regnal lists.
  • Other regnal lists claim this king ruled for 9 years.
149 Sulay Kawawmenun 20 years 177–157 BC 5323–5343 Sulay Awawminun

Kawida
Kawuda
Za Taweda
Khouwoumenou
Shoufoumenou

  • Other regnal lists claim this king ruled for 2 years.
150 Messelme Kerarmer 8 years 157–149 BC 5343–5351 Masleni Qurarmer
Meslni Qurarmer
Kanata
151 Nagey Bsente 10 years 149–139 BC 5351–5361 Nagsay Besinti
Negsay Bisiniti
Psentes
Psenthes
152 Etbenukawer 10 years 139–129 BC 5361–5371
153 Safeliya Abramen 20 years 129–109 BC 5371–5391 Sifelya Abramin
Za Felya Abramen
154 Sanay 10 years 109–99 BC 5391–5401 Senay
155 Awsena (Queen) 11 years 99–88 BC 5401–5412 Awasina
Asisena
Za Awzena

Aouzena

  • Fourteenth female monarch on this regnal list.
  • Other regnal lists claim this monarch ruled for only 1 year.
156 Dawit II 10 years 88–78 BC 5412–5422
  • The reason why Tafari called this king "Dawit II" may be because Aleka Taye numbered the king this way and referred to Menelik I as "Dawit" in his regnal list.
157 Aglbul 8 years 78–70 BC 5422–5430 Aghelbuls

Aglebu
Engeleb
Za Aglebu
Aglebel

  • Other regnal lists claim this king ruled for 3 years.
158 Bawawl 10 years 70–60 BC 5430–5440 Bawel
Bawawel
Bewawl
159 Barawas 10 years 60–50 BC 5440–5450 Berewas

Za Birwas
Bawaris
Bahr Uedem

  • Other regnal lists claim this king ruled for 29 years.
  • Name means "esteemed defender".
160 Dinedad 10 years 50–40 BC 5450–5460 Danidad
161 Amoy Mahasse 5 years 40–35 BC 5460–5465 Mohesa
Za Mahasi
Za Mahele
Za Masih
  • Other regnal lists claim this king ruled for 1 year.
  • Name means "Pious man".
162 Nicotnis Kandake V (Queen) 10 years 35–25 BC 5465–5475 Nicotris Hendeke
Amanirenas?
  • Fifteenth female monarch on this regnal list.
  • Kushite queen Amanirenas reigned during this period, but her rule is not known to have extended to modern day Ethiopia.
  • This queen's name bears similarities to Nitocris, a likely legendary queen who was said to have ruled Egypt at the end of the sixth dynasty, and appears in the writings of numerous ancient Greek writers. Aleka Taye called this queen "Nicotris Hendeke", which is even closer to the name Nitocris.
163 Nalke 5 years 25–20 BC 5475–5480 Nolkee
Nolki
  • One version of Heruy Wolde Selassie's regnal list and Aleka Taye's regnal list both state that this king reigned for 4 years, from 14 to 10 BC
  • Ethiopian historian Fisseha Yaze Kassa stated that this king reigned for 2 years.
164 Luzay 12 years 20–8 BC 5480–5492 Laka
  • One version of Heruy Wolde Selassie's regnal list and Aleka Taye's regnal list both state that this king reigned for 2 years, from 10 to 8 BC
  • Ethiopian historian Fisseha Yaze Kassa stated that this king reigned for 8 years.
165 Bazen 17 years 8 BC–9 AD 5492–5509 Za B'esi Bazen
Tazen
  • Other Ethiopian regnal lists claim this king ruled for 16 years, but are consistent in stating his reign began 8 years before the birth of Jesus Christ.
  • Ethiopian historian Fisseha Yaze Kassa stated that this king reigned for 6 years.
  • Egyptologist Henry Salt claimed that he saw an ancient inscription on a stone in a church in Axum stating "This is the sepulchral stone of Bazen". He did however claim that this was the name of several Abyssinian kings, so he may not have been referring to this specific king.
"Before Christ 165 sovereigns reigned."

Monarchs who reigned after the birth of Christ (297 years)

Rembrandt, The Baptism of the Eunuch, c. 1626

Text accompanying this section:
"These thirty-five sovereigns at the time of Akapta Tsenfa Arad had been Christianized by the Apostle Saint Matthew. There were few men who did not believe, for they had heard the words of the gospel. After this Jen Daraba, favourite of the Queen of Ethiopia, Garsemat Kandake, crowned by Gabre Hawariat Kandake, had made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem according to the law of Orit (the ancient law), and on his return Philip the Apostle [sic] taught him the gospel, and after he had made him believe the truth he sent him back, baptising him in the name of the trinity. The latter (the Queen's favourite), on his return to his country, taught by word of mouth the coming of our Saviour Jesus Christ and baptised them. Those who were baptised, not having found an Apostle to teach them the Gospel, had been living offering sacrifices to God according to the ancient prescription and the Jewish Law."

Despite the text above claiming that Christianity was introduced to Ethiopia during this line of monarchs, Charles F. Rey pointed out that this retelling of events contradicts both the known information around the Christianisation of Ethiopia and the story of Queen Ahwya Sofya and Abreha and Atsbeha in the next section.

The claim that Matthew the Apostle had Christianized king Akaptah Tsenfa Arad (no. 167) is inspired by Louis J. Morié's narrative in Historie de l'Éthiopie, in which he claimed that a king named "Hakaptah" ruled Aethiopia beginning in c. 40 AD and it was during his reign that Matthew converted the king's daughter Ephigenia. This narrative was inspired by the older Church story of Matthew which involved a king named "Egippus".

The story of Garsemot Kandake VI and Jen Daraba is based on the biblical story of the Ethiopian eunuch, who was the treasurer of Kandake, queen of the Ethiopians and was baptized after travelling to Jerusalem. However, the eunuch was actually baptised by Philip the Evangelist, not Philip the Apostle as Tafari mistakenly states. Louis J. Morié's narrative did not accept that this Kandake queen, whom he numbered fifth rather than sixth, was the one who is mentioned in the story of the Ethiopian eunuch. The apparent contradiction in story of the Christianisation of Ethiopia according to this regnal list is due to an attempt to accommodate both the native Ethiopian tradition around Abreha and Atsbeha and the Biblical traditions of "Ethiopia" (i.e. Nubia).

This section is the last part of the regnal list that directly refers to ancient Nubia and the Kingdom of Kush, which came to an end in the 4th century AD following its conquest by Ezana.

Peter Truhart believed that the line of Axumite kings begins with Gaza Agdur (no. 188) and dated the beginning of his reign to c. 150.

Note: All monarchs numbered 166 to 200 (with the exception of 168) appear on other Ethiopian regnal lists (see Regnal lists of Ethiopia). The other lists suggest there are multiple distinct traditions regarding the order of succession from Bazen to Abreha and Atsbeha, which this regnal list attempts to combine into a longer line of succession. Numerous monarchs also have their names expanded or altered specially for the 1922 regnal list.

No.
Name
Picture Length of reign
Reign dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
"Year of the World"
Alternate names Notes
166 Sartu Tsenfa Asagad 21 years 9–30 5509–5530 Seretu (Tsenfe Aseged)
Za Senatu
Za Sartu
Za-Sendo
  • Other regnal lists claim this king ruled for 26 years.
  • This king was supposedly remembered as a bad ruler.
  • Name written as "Sartu Tsenfa Assegd" on Tafari's list.
167 Akaptah Tsenfa Arad 8 years 30–38 5530–5538 Egippus

Hakaptah
Akatatah (Senfa Ared)
Tzenaf Segued

  • Tafari claimed that this king was Christianized by Matthew the Apostle. This likely refers to an Aethiopian king named "Egippus" who, in Church tradition, was the father of saint Ephigenia of Ethiopia, who was consecrated by Matthew.
  • One version of Heruy Wolde Selassie's regnal list and Aleka Taye's regnal list both claim this king ruled for only 2 years, from 30 to 32 AD
  • Taye claimed this king was followed by a king named "Settah" who reigned for 8 years, from 32 to 40 AD, and is not mentioned on Tafari's list.
  • Only known as "Senfa Arad" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
168 Horemtaku 2 years 38–40 5538–5540 Hirtacus
Hor-em-tekhou
  • Brother of Akaptah Tsenfa Arad.
  • King Hirtacus who, in Church tradition, asked Matthew the Apostle to persuade Ephigenia to marry him, but instead Matthew rebuked the king for lusting after her and the king promptly had Matthew killed while he stood at the altar.
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king reigned from 40 to 42.
  • One version of Heruy Wolde Selassie's regnal list claimed this king reigned from 32 to 34.
169 Garsemot Kandake VI (Queen) 10 years 40–50 5540–5550 Gersmot
Garsamot (Hendeke)
Guerma Calez
Kantakeh
Amanitore?
Amanikhatashan?
  • Sixteenth female monarch on this regnal list.
  • The historical Kandake whose period of rule may align with this monarch could be Amanitore or Amanikhatashan, who both ruled in the 1st century AD.
  • According to some Ethiopian traditions, the first church of Ethiopia, the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion, was built during this queen's reign by eunuch after her converstion to Christianity. However, it is more likely the church was built by Ezana in the 4th century after his conversion to Christianity.
  • One version of Heruy Wolde Selassie's regnal list claimed this queen ruled for 8 years from 34 to 42.
  • Aleka Taye likewise claimed this queen ruled for 8 years, but dated her reign to 42–50.
170 Hatoza Bahr Asagad 28 years 50–78 5550–5578 Baher [A]sgad
Hatez Baher Asged
Hatoza Bahr Asgad
  • Only known as "Baher Asagad" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
171 Mesenh Germasir 7 years 78–85 5578–5585 Meshin Germasor
Masenh Germa Sor
Za Masenh
Za Museneh
  • Other regnal lists claim this king ruled for 6 years. He is only known as "Masenh" or "Museneh" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
172 Metwa Germa Asfar 9 years 85–94 5585–5594 Za Shetet
Za Sutuwa
Setwa Germa Asfir
Sateua
  • Only known as "Sutuwa" or "Shetet" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
173 Adgala II 10 years and 6 months 94–104 5594–5604 Adgala
Za Adgaba
Za Adgasa
Bahr Argad
  • Some regnal lists claim this king ruled for 16 years.
174 Agba 6 months 104–105 5604–5605 Za Agabos
Za Agba
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king reigned for a full year.
175 Serada 16 years 105–121 5605–5621
176 Malis Alameda I 4 years 121–125 5621–5625 Melis Alamida

Za Malis
Za Malik

  • Some regnal lists claim this king ruled for 6 years. He is only known as "Malis" or "Malik" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
177 Hakabe Nasohi Tseyon 6 years 125–131 5625–5631 Tzion
Haqabi Kulu Tsion
Hakabe Nasohi Seyon
Kuelula-Zion
  • Only known as "Tsyion" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
  • This king was a scholar and fluent in the Greek language, but was also greedy and debauched.
178 Hakli Sergway 12 years 131–143 5631–5643 Zoskales
Za Hakli
Za Hakale
Sargai
Sharguay
Hakale Sergway
  • Could be the Aksumite king Zoskales, the earliest known king of Axum who ruled in c. 100. Egyptologist Henry Salt and Ethiopian scholar Sergew Hable Sellassie both theorised that Zoskales was the king known as "Za Haqala" or "Za Hakale" that appears on some Ethiopian regnal lists. However, G.W.B. Huntingford felt that there is not enough evidence to support this identification.
  • The names "Hakli" and "Sergway" are often listed independently on other Ethiopian regnal lists, which could mean that they are two different kings. However, no known regnal lists (apart from Tafari's) have both names included. Some regnal lists claim that king "Hakli" reigned for 13 years.
179 Dedme Zaray 10 years 143–153 5643–5653 Dedeme Zeray
Za Demahe
Zaray
  • The names "Dedme" and "Zaray" are often listed independently on other Ethiopian regnal lists, which could mean that they are two different kings. However, no known regnal lists (apart from Tafari's) have both names included.
180 Awtet 2 years 153–155 5653–5655 Za Awtet
  • Third king named "Awtet" on this list but not numbered.
181 Alaly Bagamay 7 years 155–162 5655–5662 Bagamai
Ela Arka
Za Ela-Herka
  • Brother of Dedme Zaray.
  • The names "Bagamai" and "Arka"/"Herka" are often listed independently on other Ethiopian regnal lists, which could mean that they are two different kings. However, no regnal list (apart from Tafari's) includes both names, so it is possible they are meant to be two names for the same person.
182 Awadu Jan Asagad 30 years 162–192 5662–5692 Za El-'Aweda
Jan Segued
Sabe Asgad
Saba Asgad
  • Brother of Dedme Zaray.
  • The names "Awadu" and "Jan Asagad" are often listed independently on other Ethiopian regnal lists, which could mean that they are two different kings. However, no known regnal lists (apart from Tafari's) have both names included.
  • Louis J. Morié believed this was the king whose conquests was recorded on the Monumentum Adulitanum inscription.
183 Zagun Tseyon Hegez 5 years 192–197 5692–5697 Zagen Tsion Hagez
Za Zigen
Zamare
Dezta?
  • Some regnal lists claim that Zagun was a co-ruler with the next king Rema. These lists state that they ruled for either 20 or 40 years, though do not state if they were co-rulers for this entire length of time. Only known as "Zagun" or "Zamare" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
184 Rema Tseyon Geza 3 years 197–200 5697–5700 Betza
Seyon Geza
Reima Tsion Geza
Zamare?
  • Some regnal lists claim that Rema was a co-ruler with the previous king Zagun. These lists state that they ruled for either 20 or 40 years, though do not state if they were co-rulers for this entire length of time. The names "Rema" and "Seyon Geza" are often listed independently on other Ethiopian regnal lists, which could mean that they are two different kings. However, no known regnal lists (apart from Tafari's) have both names included.
185 Azegan Malbagad 7 years 200–207 5700–5707 Moal Genba
Azeigan Me'albagad
Azagan
  • Aleka Taye stated that this king reigned either 5 or 7 years.
  • Only known as "Moal Genba" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
186 Gafale Seb Asagad 1 year 207–208 5707–5708 Za Gafali
Gefelie Seb' Aseged
  • Only known as "Gafale" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
187 Tsegay Beze Wark 4 years 208–212 5708–5712 Za Baesi Serk
Tsegayon Be'esie Serq
Segay Besi Sarq
  • Only known as "Besi Sark" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
188 Gaza Agdur 9 years 212–221 5712–5721 GDRT?
Zagdur?
Gadar(at)
  • This king may be identifiable with the Aksumite king GDRT, who appears in some regnal lists under the name "Gedur", "Zegdur" or "Zegduru" ("Ze" meaning "of" in Ge'ez). A similarly named king "Amen Hotep Zagdur" appears earlier in Tafari's list as no. 102. However, archeologists believe that king GDRT reigned at some point in the early third century AD, which more closely matches the date of the 188th king on this list.
  • Only known as "Agdur" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
  • The name of this king could be a reference to Gaza in Palestine, which was promised by king Solomon to Makeda according to the Kebra Nagast.
189 Agduba Asgwegwe 8 years 221–229 5721–5729 Za Elasguaga
Za El-Azwagwa
Agdur Asguaga
Adbah
ʽDBH
Agduba ela Asgwagwa
  • Some chronicles claim that a king named "Azguagua" was the son of a king named "Alada" and was converted to Christianity by Frumentius and his brother Edesius. Tafari's list rejects this tradition and instead dates the conversion of Ethiopia to Christianity in the reign of Ahywa Sofya. The reign dates for Asgwegwe on this list are also far too early to be in line with the lifetime of Frumentius.
  • Other regnal lists claim this king reigned for 76 years.
  • Peter Truhart identified this king with the Axumite king ʽDBH or "Adhebah".
  • Only known as "Asgwegwe" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
190 Dawiza 1 year 229–230 5729–5730 Za Baesi tsawera
Za Be'si Saweza
  • Brother of Agduba Asgwegwe.
191 Wakana (Queen) 2 days 230 5730 Za Wakena
Za Wakna
  • Seventeenth female monarch on this regnal list.
  • According to Aleka Taye, this queen reigned for 2 months instead of 2 days.
192 Hadawz 4 months 230 5730 Za Hadus
Za Hadawesa
Hawdes
  • Some regnal lists claim this king ruled for 2 months.
193 Ailassan Sagal 3 years 230–233 5730–5733 El Segel
Za Ela-Sagal
Aslal Sen Segel
Za Asgal
Zoskales
  • Some regnal lists claim this king ruled for 2 years.
  • Peter Truhart identified this king as the Axumite king Zoskales and dated the beginning of his reign to c. 210 or 220.
194 Asfehi Asfeha 14 years 233–247 5733–5747 El Asfeh
Za Ela Asfeha
Asfeho Asfeha
  • Some regnal lists claim this king ruled for 10 years. Only known as "Asfeha" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
195 Atsgaba Seifa Arad 6 years 247–253 5747–5753 Saif Araad
Senda 'Ar'ad
Atsgebe Seyfe Are'd
Asgaba Sayfa Arad
  • One Ethiopian tradition states that the father of Abreha and Atsbeha was a king named "Senfa Arad". E. A. Wallis Budge referred to this king as "Senfa Arad (II)", suggesting that the king should be identified with the 195th king of this list, rather than Akaptah Tsenfa Ared above (no. 167). This identification however still raises questions over Tafari's list, as this king is followed by four further kings before the mother of Abreha and Atsbeha becomes ruler of Ethiopia.
  • One regnal list quoted by Carlo Conti Rossini claimed that "Seifa Arad" was the throne name of king Tazer (no. 199 on this list).
  • This king was only known as "Seifa Arad" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
196 Ayba 17 years 253–270 5753–5770 Za Aiba
El Aiga
Za Ela Ayba
Za Ela Ayga
  • Other regnal lists claim this king ruled for 16 years. He is possibly identifiable with king "Ayga", who ruled for 18 years according some regnal lists.
197 Tsaham Lakniduga 9 years 270–279 5770–5779 El Tshemo
Za Ela Saham
Tseham Lakdun
Za Ela Saham Laknduga
  • Son of Ayba.
  • Only known as "Tsaham" on pre-20th century regnal lists.
198 Tsegab 10 years 279–289 5779–5789 El Tsegaba
Za Ela Segab
Ze Ela Segab(a)
Wazebas?
  • Other regnal lists claim this king ruled for 23 years.
  • Peter Truhart tentatively identified this king as the Axumite king Wazeba. This idenfication allows for Tafari's list to match with archaeological evidence that shows that Wazeba was succeeded by Ousanas, who Truhart identifies with the next king Tazer.
  • Truhart dated the beginning of this king's reign to c. 300 and stated his reign lasted for either 10 or 13 years.
199 Tazer 10 years 289–299 5789–5799 Tazier Tazena
Seifa Arad
Tazena Ela Ameda
Tazer Sayfa Arad
  • One regnal list quoted by Carlo Conti Rossini claimed that Tazer's throne name was "Seifa Arad" (no. 195).
  • Peter Truhart identified this king with "Ela Ameda" or Ousanas. This idenfication allows for Tafari's list to match with archaeological evidence that shows Ousanas was succeeded by his wife Sofya as regent before their son became king of Axum.
  • Truhart stated that this king's reign lasted for either 10 or 30 years.
200 Ahywa Sofya (Queen) 7 years 299–306 5799–5806 Sofya
El Ahiawya
Za Ela 'Ahyawa
Eguala Anbasa
  • Eighteenth female monarch on this regnal list.
  • Tafari's regnal list notes that "her regnal name was Sofya, and she was the mother of Abreha Atsbeha".
  • An Aksumite queen named Sofya ruled Axum as regent following the death of her husband Ousanas (otherwise known as Ella Allada) in c. 330. Her son was king Ezana. However, her husband is not mentioned by name on this list and her son's reign on this list is dated to over 150 years after her reign ends.
  • Other regnal lists name a monarch called "Ahywa" who reigned for 3 years and was the predecessor of Abreha and Atsbeha.
  • Peter Truhart [de] dated the beginning of this queen's reign to c. 325.
  • Manfred Kropp [de] theorised that the story of Queen Ahywa Sofya and her sons Abreha and Atsbeha was modeled on Roman Empress Helena and her son Constantine I, and that the traditional date of the conversion of Ethiopia to Christianity (317) is deliberately placed before the time of the First Council of Nicaea.

Christian Sovereigns (187 years)

"Chronological table of the Christian sovereigns who received baptism and followed completely the law of the Gospel."

Church of Abreha and Atsbeha

Brothers Abreha and Atsbeha are frequently cited in Ethiopian tradition as the first Christian kings of Ethiopia, although Tafari's list strangely considered them to be one person and this may have been an error that arose when transcribing the list. According to Tyrannius Rufinus, Christianity was introduced to this region by Frumentius and his brother Edesius. They were sailing down the Red Sea with a Syrian merchant named Meropius when they landed on the coast and were seized by the native people, who spared the two brothers and took them to the king. Frumentius was made the king's chancellor and Edesius was made cupbearer or butler. After the king's death, the widowed queen asked both men to stay until her son was grown up and Frumentius assisted her in ruling the kingdom. During his time in power, Frumentius had many churches built and obtained facilities to allow more trade with Christians and years later asked Athanasius, the Pope of Alexandria, to send a bishop to Abyssinia to teach the Christians there who had no leader. E. A. Wallis Budge believed that the brothers had initially arrived at Adulis.

Tafari's regnal list reflects the above tradition by specifically crediting Frumentius, under the name of Aba Salama, with introducing Christianity during the rule of queen Ahywa Sofya, who is the widowed queen of the story. According to Tyrannius Rufinus, the Axumites converted to Christianity during the reign of the Roman Emperor Constantine I (306–337). The dating of Tafari's list aligns with this narrative.

Peter Truhart believed that a "period of disintegration" began with the reign of Queen Adhana I during which there may have been multiple reigning monarchs at the same time. Truhart dated this period to c. 375–450. E. A. Wallis Budge previously stated that he believed there were "kinglets" who ruled parts of Ethiopia between 360 and 480 separate from other lines of kings. This theory was used to explain why there was so much variation between different Ethiopian regnal lists. Budge identified most of the monarchs from Adhana I to Lewi as "kinglets", while the later kings were those who appear more frequently on regnal lists. John Stewart's book African States and Rulers provides alternate reign dates and succession order for the monarchs from Abreha I to Del Na'od.

No.
Name
Picture Length of reign
Reign dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
"Year of the World"
Alternate names Notes
"In the year 327 after Jesus Christ – 11 years after the reign of these two sovereigns (mother and son) – the gospel was introduced to Ethiopia by Abba Salama, and the Queen Sofya, who was baptised, became a good Christian."
Joint rule of Ahywa Sofya
and her son Abreha Atsbeha
[sic]
26 years 306–332 5806–5832 Abreha
Atsbeha
Ella Abreha
Ella Atsbeha
Ezana
Saizana
Aizanas
Za Ela Asbeha
Za Ela Asfeha Masqal
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) for Abreha and Atsbeha from John Stewart: 356–370.
  • According to Tafari, it was during this joint reign that Aba Salama introduced the Gospel to Ethiopia in 327 and the Queen Ahwya Sofya was baptised. Manfred Kropp [de] argued that this date was wrong and it should be 317. Some Ethiopian traditions state that it was in the year 333 that the people converted to Christianity.
  • Ethiopian tradition states that two brothers named Abreha and Atsbeha ruled the country in the 4th century and were the first to adopt Christianity. Tafari however lists 'Abreha Atsbeha' as a single figure, seemingly merging several myths and historical facts. A king named Ezana is known to be the son of Queen Sofya and was a minor at the time of his accession, but is usually considered separate from the legend of Abreha and Atsbeha. It is also known that it was Ezana who was the first king to convert to Christianity, due to the teachings of Aba Salama. Despite this, Ezana is largely absent from many Ethiopian regnal lists.
  • According to Aleka Taye, the joint 26-year reign from 306 to 322 was of that of Abreha and Atsbeha, not of queen Sofya with any other ruler. Taye states that Sofya ruled for 7 years (299–306) followed by Abreha and Atsbeha for 26 years (306–332) and then followed by the sole rule of Abreha by himself for 12 years (332–344). It is possible that Tafari may have erroneously misread this information when compiling the regnal list. Historian Manfred Kropp [de] likewise argued that this joint reign should be read as the joint reign of brother Abreha and Atsbeha not mother and son.
201 Atsbeha (alone) 12 years 332–344 5832–5844
  • Despite previously listing 'Abreha Atsbeha' as a single person who "partly [ruled] with his mother", Tafari's regnal list now states that Atsbeha ruled separately for 12 years, similar to what was stated on Aleka Taye's list, except that Taye named Abreha as sole ruler rather than Atsbeha. This may confirm that a transcribing error took place in the writing of Tafari's regnal list, and Abreha and Atsbeha were indeed meant to be listed as two different kings.
  • There is a possibility that names 'Abreha' and 'Atsbeha' may corruptions of the names of Ezana and his brother Shiazana. However, E. A. Wallis Budge was skeptical of this and suggested that the chroniclers deliberately avoided mentioning Ezana and Shizana and instead preferred to claim conversion took place through members of the so-called Solomonic line, which Ezana and Shizana may not have been part of.
  • Stuart Munro-Hay theorized that the story of Abreha and Atsbeha resulted from a confusion over two historical figures; The Aksumite king Kaleb, whose throne name was Ella Atsbeha, and Aksumite general Abraha, who promoted Christianity in Yemen. The dates on this list roughly correspond with the estimated period of Ezana's reign by historians (c. 320s-360).
  • Heruy Wolde Selassie equated 'Abreha Atsbeha' with Ezana on his regnal list.
  • One regnal list quoted by Egyptologist Henry Salt equated Abreha with Ezana and Atsbeha with Saizana.
  • Peter Truhart dated Ezana's reign to c. 339–365 (26 years).
  • Peter Truhart dated the beginning of Saizana's reign to c. 365 and believed he reigned 17 years.
202 Asfeh Dalz 7 years 344–351 5844–5851 Asfeha
203 Sahle I 14 years 351–365 5851–5865 Sahel
Ella Shahel
Ela Sahl
Asael
Saizana?
  • One tradition states that this king was a co-ruler with Abreha and Atsbeha from 356 to 370, and that each day of their joint reign was divided into three parts, so that each king was absolute during a specific part of the day.
  • Peter Truhart dated the beginning of this king's reign to c. 365 and theorised that he may be the same king as Saizana.
204 Arfed Gebra Maskal 4 years 365–368 5865–5869 Arphad
Arfasked
Arfaked
Arshad
Gabra Masqal
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 370–374.
  • Son of Ezana/Abreha.
205 Adhana I (Queen) 5 years 368–374 5869–5874 Ella 'Adhana
  • Nineteenth female monarch on this regnal list.
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 374–379.
  • One regnal list claims this monarch ruled for 14 years.
  • Name means "God renews him".
206 Riti 1 year 374–375 5874–5875 Ella Rete'a
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 379–380.
207 Asfeh II 1 year 375–376 5875–5876 Asfeha
Ella Asfeh
Jan Asfeha
  • Son of Asfeh Dalz or Arfed Gebra Maskal.
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 380–381.
208 Atsbeha II 5 years 376–381 5876–5881 Ella 'Asbeha
  • Son of Asfeh II.
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 381–386.
209 Amey I 15 years 381–396 5881–5896 Ameda
Ella 'Amida
  • Second son of Asfeh II.
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 386–401.
210 Abreha II 7 months 396 5896 Ella 'Abreha
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 401.
  • Some regnal lists claim this king ruled for 6 months.
211 Ilassahl 2 months 396 5896 Ella Shahel
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 401–402.
  • According to one Ethiopian tradition, this king was murdered by his successor Elagabaz. The king was known to be vain and proud and refused to allow his daughter Admas to be married to Elagabaz when he asked for her hand in marriage. Ilasshal died shortly after being imprisoned.
212 Elagabaz I 2 years 396–398 5896–5898 WʽZB?
Ella Gobaz
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 402–404.
  • Possibly the Axumite king WʽZB who reigned during the mid 6th century, also known as "Ella Gabaz" on an inscription where he states that he is the son of "Ella Atsbeha" or king Kaleb, who is placed much further down Tafari's list. Alternatively WʽZB may be the second king named Elagabaz on this list (no. 222).
  • One Ethiopian tradition claims that Elagabaz killed his predecessor, Ilassahl, and married a princess named Admas before proclaiming himself king. He had been ordered to be executed by the king, but rose up against him with an army. Elagabaz later married a pagan queen named Lab, who was from a neighbouring district. This resulted in a brother of Admas, named Shahel (or Suhal), to rise up and kill both Elagabaz and Lab, and proclaim himself king.
  • Name means "Hero of God".
213 Suhal 4 years 398–402 5898–5902 Sahel
Ella Shahel
Ella Sehal
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 404–408.
  • According to one Ethiopian tradition, this king was the brother-in-law of Elagabaz, and slew him to become king. E. A. Wallis Budge dated the beginning of his reign to 394.
  • Peter Truhart dated the beginning of this king's reign to c. 395.
214 Abreha III 10 years 402–412 5902–5912 Abraha
Ella Abreha
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 408–418.
  • Some regnal lists claim this king was a co-ruler with Adhana for 16 years.
  • Peter Truhart dated the beginning of this king's reign to c. 400.
215 Adhana II (Queen) 6 years 412–418 5912–5918 Ella Adhana
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 418–424.
  • Some regnal lists claim this monarch was a co-ruler with Abreha III for 16 years.
  • With the exception of the usurper Gudit, Adhana II is the last queen named on this regnal list and it appears that no legitimate female monarch reigned over Ethiopia until Empress Zewditu in 1913. Mentewab had herself crowned co-ruler on the accession of her son Iyasu II in 1730 but this is not noted in the regnal list.
216 Yoab 10 years 418–428 5918–5928 Eyoab
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 424–434.
217 Tsaham I 2 years 428–430 5928–5930 Ella Saham
Sehma
Tesama
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 434–436.
  • Some regnal lists claim this king ruled for 28 years.
  • Despite being numbered "Tsaham I", there is an earlier king on this list named "Tsaham Lakniduga" (no. 197).
218 Amey II 1 year 430–431 5930–5931 Ameda
Ela Ameda
Sembrouthes?
Semrat?
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 436–446.
  • Peter Truhart identified this king with the Axumite king Sembrouthes.
  • Truhart dated the beginning of this king's reign to c. 430 and believed he may have reigned for between 1 and 12 years.
  • Truhart also considered that this king may be identical with Amey I.
219 Sahle Ahzob 2 years 431–433 5931–5933 Sahel
Ella Shahel
Lalibala
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 446–448.
220 Tsebah Mahana Kristos 3 years 433–436 5933–5936 Ella Sebah
Ela Sabah
Tsebah Meharene Christos
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 448–451.
221 Tsaham II 2 years 436–438 5936–5938 Ella Saham
Sehma
Tesama
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 451–466.
  • Stewart lists the next king Elagabaz II as his co-ruler from 463 to 466.
  • Some regnal lists claim this king ruled for 15 years.
  • Peter Truhart suggested that this king could be identitical with Tsaham I.
222 Elagabaz II 6 years 438–444 5938–5944 Ella Gobaz
Elle Gabaz
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 463–474.
  • Stewart lists the previous king Tsaham II as his co-ruler from 463 to 466.
  • This king may be the Aksumite king WʽZB who reigned during the sixth century (see note for Elagabaz I, no. 212).
  • Some regnal lists claim this king ruled for 21 years.
223 Agabi 1 year 444–445 5944–5945 Agabie
Angabo
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from E. A. Wallis Budge and John Stewart: 474–475.
  • Stewart lists both Agabi and Lewi as co-rulers.
  • Some regnal lists state that these kings were co-rulers, and E. A. Wallis Budge dated their joint reign to c. 474–475.
224 Lewi 3 years 445–448 5945–5948 Liewee
225 Ameda III 2 years 448–450 5948–5950 Amoy
Alla Amidas?
Ousanas?
Yacob
Ela Ameda
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 475–486.
  • The reason why Tafari calls this king "Ameda III" despite no prior king of this name appearing on his list could be due to Aleka Taye numbering the king this way on his regnal list. Taye referred to the two kings named "Amey" as "Ameda", hence the numbering.
  • John Stewart believes this king was Alla Amidas, who other historians believe reigned in the mid 6th century. Alternatively, this king may be Ousanas, also known as Ella Allada or Ella Amida, who reigned in the 4th century.
  • Stewart lists joint kings Jacob and David (who do not appear on Tafari's list) as ruling between Alla Amidas and Armah from 486 to 489. E. A. Wallis Budge also confirmed one Ethiopian tradition that states that Yakob (Jacob) and Dawit (David) ruled jointly for three years following Alla Amidas. Aleka Taye called this king "Ameda III (Yacob)", seemingly combining Yakob with Alla Amidas, and Dawit being combined with Armah.
226 Armah Dawit 14 years 450–464 5950–5964 Najashi
Ashamah
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from E. A. Wallis Budge and John Stewart: 489–504.
  • Possibly the Axumite king who is also known as Najashi and is believed by historians to have reigned from 614 to 630.
  • John Stewart lists two kings after Armah who do not appear on Tafari's list: Zitana (504–505) and Jacob II (505–514). Budge also gives the same kings' names and dates, adding that one Ethiopian tradition claimed Jacob II (Yakob II) was called "Arwe" because of his cruelties and was defeated by 'Ella 'Asbeha, otherwise known as Kaleb. One regnal list claimed this king ruled for 14 years, 6 months and 10 days.
  • Peter Truhart stated this king ruled for between 6 and 14 years.
227 Amsi 5 years 464–469 5964–5969 Amzi
  • Descendant of Adhana I.
228 Salayba 9 years 469–478 5969–5978 Seladoba
Aladeb
Al'adoeb
  • Son of Amsi.
229 Alameda II 8 years 478–486 5978–5986 Ousanas?
Alla Amidas?
Ellamida
230 Pazena Ezana 7 years 486–493 5986–5993 Tazena
Tazena (Ezana)
Ousanas
Wazena?
Zitana
Ela Asbeha
Tezshana
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 325–356.
  • Son of Alameda II.
  • Despite sharing the same name as the Axumite king Ezana, he reigned much earlier than these dates and it is more likely this king is meant to be Tazena, father of Kaleb, the next king on this list.
  • Alternatively, this king could also be Wazena, who succeeded Alla Amidas (if the previous king is to be identified with Alla Amidas), however his reign predates that of Ella Gabaz who already appears earlier in this list.
  • A further possibility is that this king meant to be Zitana, a king who does not appear on all regnal lists but is said to be the father of Kaleb, which would match with this regnal list as Kaleb follows as the next king.
  • John Stewart places Ezana much earlier in chronological placement compared to Tafari, putting him in a similar position to Queen Ahywa Sofya on Tafari's list which would closer match the archeological evidence. Stewart also lists a co-ruler named Shiazana who ruled alongside Ezana from 328 to 356.
  • Aleka Taye called this king "Tazena II (Ezana)", seemingly equating Ousanas (Tazena) with Ezana even though archeological evidence would suggest they were two different kings.
  • Peter Truhart called this king "Ezana II", having previously acknowledged Abreha I as the same person as Ezana of Axum.
"Of the posterity of Sofya and Abreha Atsbeha until the reign of Pazena Ezana 31 [sic] sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia: from Ori until the reign of Pazena Ezana 230 [sic] sovereigns."

Dynasty of Atse (Emperor) Kaleb until Gedajan (427 years)

Coin of Kaleb.

The majority of the following monarchs are attested on other regnal lists.

Other Ethiopian regnal lists do not acknowledge a dynastic break between Kaleb and earlier kings. It is possible that this list marks a break here only because it considers Kaleb to be the first emperor of Ethiopia. Louis J. Morié stated that Saint Elesbaan (another name for Kaleb) was the first to claim the title of "Emperor". However, Henry Salt believed that Menelik I was the first to use this title.

Despite this section's heading, three further rulers are named after Gedajan, with Dil Na'od being the actual last king of this line of Axumite kings. The choice of title for this section may be due the interruption of the Axumite line by queen Gudit, although some Ethiopian traditions state that she usurped the throne after Dil Na'od, and thus her reign is often dated later compared to this regnal list.

No.
Name
Picture Length of reign
Reign dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
"Year of the World"
Alternate names Notes
231 Kaleb 30 years 493–523 5993–6023 Constantine
David
Ella 'Asbeha
Elesbaan
Elasboas
Helestaios
Dawit
Questantinos
  • Son of Pazena Ezana or Zitana.
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from E. A. Wallis Budge and John Stewart: 514–542.
  • James Bruce on the other hand stated that this king came to power in 522.
  • Some regnal lists claim Kaleb ruled for 28 or 40 years.
  • Peter Truhart dated this king's reign to c. 493–533 and claimed he abdicated.
232 Za Israel 1 month 523 6023 Beta Israel
  • Elder son of Kaleb.
  • Previously governor of Adwa or Himyar.
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 542–550.
  • Aleka Taye did not give this king a reign length and simply stated that it was "undocumented". Taye additionally states that a king named "Gebru" reigned for 1 month between Za Israel and Gabra Maskal. This king is not named on Tafari's list.
  • Peter Truhart dated this king's reign to either 533 or 534.
233 Gabra Maskal 14 years 523–537 6023–6037 Guebra Maskal
  • Son of Kaleb.
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 550–564. E. A. Wallis Budge also believed that this king's reign begun around 550.
  • This king's name means "Servant of the Cross".
  • Budge noted that at least one regnal list gave this king a reign length of 14 years, but he also noted that some traditions state that the king did not die until between 570 and 580, at least 20 years after his reign began.
  • Some regnal lists claim Gabra Maskal ruled for 40 years.
  • Peter Truhart dated this king's reign to 534–548.
234 Kostantinos 28 years 537–565 6037–6065 Constantine
Yeshak
Kostantinos (Sahel)
  • Son of Gabra Maskal.
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 564–578.
  • Peter Truhart dated this king's reign to 548–576.
235 Wasan Sagad 15 years 565–580 6065–6080 Wusen Segued
Wosen Seged Meharene Christos
Bazagar?
Bazer?
  • Son of Gabra Maskal.
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 578–591.
  • Exiled to Arabia.
  • Wasan Sagad could be the king named Saifu in Chinese sources based on dating and a possible similarity in the names. Stuart Munro-Hay identified "Saifu" as a grandson of Kaleb.
236 Fere Sanay 23 years 580–603 6080–6103 Fere Shanay
Ferie Senay
Fere Sanaya
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 591–601.
237 Advenz 20 years 603–623 6103–6123 Aderaaz
Aderarz
Adre'azar
Armah?
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 601–623.
  • Aleka Taye claimed that the reign of this king coincided with the ascendance of Prophet Muhammad. However, the ruler of Ethiopia during this time was actually Armah (r. 614–630).
238 Akala Wedem 8 years 623–631 6123–6131 Kala Wedem
Cullandin-Aama ("Strength of royal blood")
Akul Woodem
Zeray Akala Wedem
Eklewudem
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 623–633.
  • Aleka Taye stated this king reigned for 10 years, from 623 to 633 (Ethiopian dates).
  • This king became blind.
239 Germa Asafar 15 years 631–646 6131–6146 Gersum?
Galaoudeouos
Klaoudyos
Guerma Azfare
Germa Safar
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 633–648.
  • Could be Aksumite king Gersem, who ruled at the beginning of the 7th century.
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king reigned from 633 to 648 (Ethiopian dates).
240 Zergaz 10 years 646–656 6146–6156 Deraz
Zeray Zergaz
Germa Sor
Gergaz
Heryaqos
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 648–656.
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 8 years, from 648 to 656 (Ethiopian dates).
241 Dagena Mikael 26 years 656–682 6156–6182 Dengna Mika'el
Zergaz Degna Mikael
  • Name means "Minister of Saint Michael".
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 656–677.
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 21 years, from 656 to 677 (Ethiopian dates).
242 Bahr Ekla 19 years 682–701 6182–6201 Bahra Ekala
Baher Ikla
Ekle Bahre Ekil
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 677–696.
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 14 years, from 677 to 691 (Ethiopian dates).
243 Gum 24 years 701–725 6201–6225 Gouma
Hezba Seyon
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 696–720.
244 Asguagum 5 years 725–730 6225–6230 Asgoungum
Ashagum
Asguomgum
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 720–725.
245 Latem 16 years 730–746 6230–6246 Let-um
Letem
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 725–741.
246 Talatam 21 years 746–767 6246–6267 Thala-tum
Talatem
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 741–762.
247 Gadagosh 13 years 767–780 6267–6280 Badagaz
Badgaz
Woddo Gush
Adhsha
'Oda Sasa
Ode Gosh
Adegos
Lul Sagad
Abreha
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 762–775.
248 Aizar Eskikatir Half a day 780 6280 Ayzor
Izoor
Gefa
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 775.
  • "Eskakatir" means "until Noon".
  • One manuscript from Gojjam claims that this king was the father of Gudit and had a wife named Makia Maryam who was Gudit's mother. Like Tafari's list, this manuscript states that Aizar only reigned for half a day and reigned two decades before Wudme Asfare (who is claimed to be Gudit's grandfather in other sources).
  • This king died due to suffocation by a crowd on the same day he was crowned, which is why it became illegal afterwards to approach the emperor. A barrier was thereafter placed before the emperor to prevent this from happening again.
  • Heruy Wolde Selassie specified that this king ruled for 7 hours while Aleka Taye simply noted that this king's reign lasted "until noon".
249 Dedem 5 years 780–785 6280–6285 Didum
Dedem Almaz
Dedem Almaz Sagad
  • Name means "new blood".
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 775–780.
250 Wededem 10 years 785–795 6285–6295 Awdamdem
Wedemdem
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 780–790.
251 Wudme Asfare 30 years 795–825 6295–6325 Woodm Asfar
Wedem Asfare
Wedem Masfere
W'dma Asferie
Demawedem
Demawedem Wedem Asfare
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 790–820.
  • An unpublished chronicle from Axum states that this king was the grandfather of Gudit through his daughter.
  • Ethiopian historian Sergew Hable Selassie estimated that Wudme Asfare's 30-year reign to have taken place from 792 to 822 AD Selassie felt that the actual reign dates could differ by as much as 100 years compared to written sources.
  • Some chronicles claim this king ruled for 150 years.
252 Armah II 5 years 825–830 6325–6330 Remha Armah
Rema Armah
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 820–825.
253 Degennajan 19 years 830–849 6330–6349 Degna Djan
Degjan
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 825–845.
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 19 years and 1 month.
  • Knud Tage Anderson estimated this king's reign lasted from c. 925 to c. 945. One tradition claims this king died of thirst while visiting an Arab country.
254 Gedajan 1 year 849–850 6349–6350 Gidajan
Ged'a Zan
Degna Djan?
Dagajan
Anbase Wedem?
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 845–846.
  • This name has been suggested as an alternate name for Degnnajan, though Tafari considers them to be separate kings and the Paris Chronicle names Gedajan as a separate king. One tradition claims that Gedajan or Gidajan was the name of Anbase Wedem before he became king.
  • Aleka Taye and Peter Truhart both claimed this king ruled for 10 months. This 10-month reign length is also found on one regnal list.
255 Gudit (Queen) 40 years 850–890 6350–6390 Yodït
Judith
Juditta
Ester
Esato
Ecato
Esaat
Hewan
Saat
Asaat
Ga'wa
Amota
Hamovia
Terde Gomaz Yodit
Masoba Warq
  • Twenty-first and last female monarch on this regnal list.
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 846–885.
  • A queen who was said to have laid waste to the kingdom of Aksum, according to oral tradition.
  • Moved the capital of Ethiopia to Lasta after sacking Axum.
  • One version of the legend places Gudit after Del Naad, who she supposedly had overthrown.
  • Knud Tage Anderson argued that Gudit was the same woman as Masoba Wark, a daughter of Del Naad who married Mara Takla Haymanot, the founder of the Zagwe dynasty. However, he notes that a crucial difference is that Gudit is considered to be the predecessor of Anbase Wedem while Masoba Warq followed Dil Na'od, the last Axumite king.
  • Some Ethiopian traditions state that Gudit was a granddaughter of Wudme Asfare.
  • Scottish traveler James Bruce noted a version of the story of Gudit which stated that she was a cousin of Mara Takla Haymanot, who took over rule of Ethiopia following the reigns of Gudit's successors and founded the Zagwe dynasty. Bruce also recorded one legend that stated that Gudit was a princess and a wife of a governor of the district of Bugna who wanted to overthrow the Christian religion and place her infant son on the throne. According to this version of the story Gudit had 400 royal princes killed and Del Naad (who was an infant) was taken to Shewa as the last survivor of his line.
  • Páez and de Almeida mentioned a different version of the legend where Gudit was a woman who ruled the kingdom of Tigre for 40 years, destroying all the churches there and was followed by Anbase Wedem (as also shown on Tafari's list). A different Queen named Ecato was said to have ruled in Amhara and was part of "a generation of traitors". Queen Ecato however does not appear on Tafari's list.
  • Another legend is recorded by Louis J. Morié in his book Histoire de l'Ethiope in which Gudit (or Judith) was a Falasha or Jewish queen who established a new dynasty, moving the capital to Lasta and was succeeded by her daughter Judith II, with the dynasty lasting from 937 to 977. Morie claimed that Judith II was called Terda'e Gabaz, however other sources claim that this name was given to Gudit/Judith I.
  • Yet another legend claims that Gudit was a poor girl who came to Axum and became a prostitute. A priest who slept with her stole a piece of golden curtain from the treasury of the Siyon church, made it into golden shoes and gave them to her. The priest was declared innocent of this theft because Gudit was blamed for tempting him, and she was then punished to have her right breast removed and be exiled. She met a Jewish Syrian prince named Zanobis, who pitied her and married her, and she converted to Judaism. Together the destroyed the city of Axum and were able to do so because the king, Degnajan, had perished of thirst while visiting an Arab country.
  • Gudit's historicity appears to be confirmed in the writings of traveller Ibn Hawqal, who mentions that Ethiopia (called "the country of the Habasha") had been ruled by a woman for many years by the time of his visit and that she assumed power after killing the previous king. Ibn Hawqal's travels took place between 943 and 977, which would mean that Gudit's reign is dated later than what is suggested on this list. Ibn Hawqal stated that the queen had ruled for around 30 years by the time of his travels, meaning her reign began by 947 at the latest.
  • A chronicle called History of the Patriarchs of the Egyptian Church also confirms Gudit's historicity. The chronicle quotes a letter written in c. 980 to the patriarch of Alexandria which makes reference to a "Queen of the Bani al-Hamwiah" who imprisoned many Ethiopians and destroyed churches. The Ethiopian king had also been driven out. The queen's reign came to an end when the patriarch Philotheos sent a new Metropolitan bishop to Ethiopia.
  • Knud Tage Anderson argued that the negative portrayal of Gudit was a creation of later times. He believed that Gudit/Yodit had been a member of the royal family and took power after the disappearance of king Degnajan's army and his death by thirst in Arabia. He also argued that she may have saved the country from political disaster, just as the biblical Judith had saved her people from disaster. He noted that Ibn Haqwal's description of Gudit/Yodit was positive and even in admiration of this queen.
  • The chronological placement of Gudit's reign various by source. While some traditions claimed she brought an end to the Axumite line, others, like this regnal list, explicitly claim that the Axumite line was briefly restored after her reign. An unpublished chronicle from Axum claims Anbase Wedem was Gudit's successor.
  • E. A. Wallis Budge dated Gudit's accession to roughly 300 years before the beginning of Yekuno Amlak's reign (c. 970).
  • Taddesse Tamrat dated the beginning of Gudit's reign to c. 945.
  • The name "Gudit" is likely a nickname, as it means "the freak, the monster, the unnatural or unusual or surprising or strange one".
  • "Yodït" may be her real name, given its similarity with the more common "Gudït".
  • The alternate name "Esato" means "Fire".
  • The alternate name "Ga'wa" is likely a conflation with the much later Tigray queen Ga'ewa from the sixteenth century.
256 Anbase Wedem 20 years 890–910 6390–6410 Ambaca Udem
Ambasa Woodim
Degnajan Anbasa Wedem
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 885–905.
  • Usually considered son and successor of Degna Djan and older brother of Dil Na'od.
  • The placement of Anbase Wedem's reign as following that of Gudit's is corroborated by an unpublished chronicle from Aksum. Páez and de Almeida also read of one version of the Gudit legend which named Anbase Wedem as her successor.
  • However, this is not supported by all sources. A version of the Gudit legend recounted by James Bruce places Gudit after Dil Na'od. regnal lists seen by Páez and de Almeida, Salt and Budge all state that Anbase Wedem succeeded Degna Djan, not Gudit.
  • Another tradition claims the he succeeded his father Degnajan but roamed from mountain to mountain to escape Gudit.
  • Peter Truhart claimed this king had been a "pretender" to the throne from 875 until his accession in 885.
257 Del Naad 10 years 910–920 6410–6420 Dil Na'od
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 905–c. 950.
  • James Bruce stated that this king's reign ended in 960.
  • Henry Salt dated the end of this king's reign to c. 925.
  • Some Ethiopian traditions claim he was the son of Anbase Wedem, while other traditions claim his father was Degna Djan.
  • Last king of Axum.

Sovereigns issued from Zagwe (333 years)

The Zagwe kingdom in c. 1200.

The following monarchs are historically verified, though exact dates remain unclear among historians. Some historians, such as Carlo Conti Rossini, believe that this dynasty did not come to power until the 12th century, disagreeing with the much earlier dates suggested by Tafari's list. Some Ethiopian regnal lists omit the Zagwe dynasty altogether, considering it illegitimate. Many regnal lists state that after the reign of Dil Na'od the kingdom was ruled by "another people who were not of the tribe of Israel" (i.e. not descended from king Solomon). Dr. Ghelawdewos Araia disagreed with the idea that the Zagwe kings were usurpers and instead argued that they "continued the material and spiritual culture" of Axum. He also stated that the Zagwe line was founded by the Agaw people.

Multiple traditions around the Zagwe dynasty exist, most commonly stating that the dynasty was in power for 133 or 333 years. Tafari follows the longer tradition for his regnal list. Carlo Conti Rossini suggested that the Zagwe dynasty was actually founded shortly before 1150. 16th century missionary Pedro Páez stated that the Zagwe dynasty had ruled for 143 years. E. A. Wallis Budge noted another version of the Zagwe tradition states that 11 kings ruled for 354 years, meaning that each king reigned for an average of 32 years, which Budge felt was unrealistic. James Bruce theorized that five kings of this dynasty were Jewish and descendants of Gudit, while the other six kings were Christians and originated from Lasta. Bruce specifically named Tatadim, Jan Seyum, Germa Seyum, Harbai and Mairari as the "Pagan" or Jewish kings, while Mara Takla Haymanot, Kedus Harbe, Yetbarak, Lalibela, Yemrehana Krestos and Na'akueto La'ab (in these chronological orders) were Christians.

E. A. Wallis Budge noted another tradition that claimed that Na'akueto La'ab abdicated the throne in favour of Yekuno Amlak. If this was the case, then according to Budge the dynasty may have continued to claim the title of Negus until c. 1330, with their descendants governing Lasta for centuries after this.

The following list includes seven consecutive kings ruling for 40 years each. This is also reported in other regnal lists, although there is no confirmed proof that these seven kings ruled for these exact number of years. The suspiciously round numbers given for their reign lengths suggest certain gaps in Ethiopia's history that were filled in by extending the reigns of the Zagwe kings. The existence of multiple traditions for this dynasty, ranging from 133 to 333 years in power, further suggest great uncertainty over this period in Ethiopian history. See regnal lists of Ethiopia for more information on the alternate lines of succession for this dynasty.

No.
Name
Picture Length of reign
Reign dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
"Year of the World"
Alternate names Notes
258 Mara Takla Haymanot 13 years 920–933 6420–6433 Zagwe
Mararah
Takla Haymanot
Mera Taqla Haymanot
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 1117–1133.
  • A text from Dabra Libanos claimed this king reigned for 40 years, like most kings of this dynasty.
  • Ethiopian traditions differ on the exact circumstances around the rise of the Zagwe dynasty. One tradition states that Mara married Masoba Wark, a daughter of Dil Na'od, and overthrew him to become king. According to this tradition, Mara Takla Haymanot was a high-ranking official before taking the throne.
  • Another tradition states that Dil Na'od was instead overthrown by Gudit who was succeeded to the throne by several of her own family before her cousin Mara ascended to the throne.
  • Knud Tage Anderson argued that Masoba Wark and Gudit were the same woman.
259 Tatawdem 40 years 933–973 6433–6473 Tatadim
Tetewedem
  • Elder son of Mara Takla Haymanot.
  • E. A. Wallis Budge dated the reigns of the first two kings of this dynasty to c. 992–1030 based on the reign lengths of 3 and 40 years that are given for these kings on some regnal lists.
  • Name means "Sun of the Blood" or "Blood of the Sun".
260 Jan Seyum 40 years 973–1013 6473–6513 Jan Sheyum
Akotet Jan Seyon
Chenouti
Sinoda
Degna Mikael
261 Germa Seyum 40 years 1013–1053 6513–6553 Germa Sheyum
Bemnet Germa Seyon
262 Yemrhana Kristos 40 years 1053–1093 6553–6593 Yemrehana Krestos
Yemreha
Yemrehna Krestos
Newaya Kristos
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 1133–1172.
  • Son of Germa Seyum.
  • Name means "May Christ forgive us".
263 Kedus Arbe (Samt) 40 years 1093–1133 6593–6633 Kedus Harbe
Qedus Arbe Gabra Maryam
Shan-Arbe
Harbay
264 Lalibala 40 years 1133–1173 6633–6673 Lalibela
Gebre Meskel
Lalibela Gabra Masqal
Oualda-Ghorgis
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 1172–1212.
  • Another set of accepted Gregorian reign dates by some historians for this king are 1181 to 1221.
  • Son of Jan Seyum.
265 Nacuto Laab 40 years 1173–1213 6673–6713 Na'akueto La'ab
Ne'akuto Le'ab
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 1212–1260.
  • This king's name means "Let us give thanks to the Father".
  • Son of Kedus Harbe.
266 Yatbarak 17 years 1213–1230 6713–6730 Yetbarak
267 Mayrari 15 years 1230–1245 6730–6745
268 Harbay 8 years 1245–1253 6745–6753
"Of the posterity of Mara Takla Haymanot (whose regnal name was Zagwe) until the reign of Harbay 11 sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia; 268 [sic] sovereigns in all."

Claimants during the Zagwe period

The Shewa province in Ethiopia.

"Chronological table of the 8 generations of an Israelitish dynasty, who were not raised to the throne, during the period of the reign of the posterity of the Zagwe."

Tafari provides no background information on this list of kings, however E. A. Wallis Budge stated that these kings reigned at Shewa and were descendants of Dil Na'od. Henry Salt likewise stated that the Axumite royal family fled to Shewa after Axum was destroyed by Gudit and reigned there for 330 years until the accession of Yekuno Amlak. The names and order of kings on Tafari's list matches that found in René Basset's 1882 book Études sur l'histoire d'Éthiopie.

A manuscript from Dabra Libanos included an alternate list which numbered a total of 44 kings and a woman named Masoba Wark. In some traditions, Masoba Wark, whose name means "golden basket", is claimed to be a daughter of Dil Na'od who married Mara Takla Haymanot. She supposedly married him against her father's will and together they took the throne. Yekuno Amlak would claim his descent from king Solomon through this line of kings (see Emperors of Ethiopia Family Tree).

The description of this dynasty as an "Israelitish" dynasty is a reference to the Ethiopian monarchy's claimed descent from Solomon of Israel.

No.
Name
Length of reign
Reign dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
"Year of the World"
Alternate names Notes
Mahbara Wedem Mkhbara Widam
Maimersa Woodim
Makhbara-Ouedem
Mahaber-Woudim
  • Son of Dil Na'od.
  • Peter Truhart dated the beginning of this king's reign to c. 920 while Louis J. Morié believed his reign did not begin until after 980.
  • Name means "blood abundant in riches".
Agbea Tseyon Agva Sion
Igba-Sion
Yakob
  • Son of Mahbara Wedem.
  • Name means "Restore Zion".
Tsenfa Arad Sin Farat
Senfa Ared
  • Son of Agbea Tsyon.
  • Louis J. Morié dated this king's reign to c. 1110.
Nagash Zare Nagasa Zare
Negus Zaré
Negush Záree
Nagehere
  • Son of Tsinfa Arad.
  • Name means "Royal seed".
  • Peter Truhart dated this king's reign to after 1000.
  • Louis J. Morié dated this king's reign to c. 1150 to c. 1190 and claimed he sent an embassy to Pope Alexander III in 1177.
Asfeh Asfeha
Ela-Asfeha
Atzfé
  • Son of Nagash Zare.
  • Peter Truhart dated this king's reign to after 1000.
  • Louis J. Morié dated this king's reign to c. 1200.
Yakob
  • Son of Asfeh.
Bahr Asagad Bahr Seggad
Birasgud
Bahr-Sagad
  • Son of Yakob.
  • Name means "Venerable as the sea" or "Who guards the sea".
  • Peter Truhart dated this king's reign to after 1100.
  • Henry Salt listed an additional king named "Asgud" between Bahr Asagad and Edem Asagad. Louis J. Morié also mentioned a king named "Asged" who, on some regnal lists, was confused with his predecessor under the name "Birasgud-Asgud".
Edem Asagad Adam Asgad
Admas Sagad
Widma Asgad
Woodem Asgud
Ouedem-Asgad
  • Son of Bahr Asagad.
  • Reigned directly before Yekuno Amlak.
  • Peter Truhart dated this king's reign to c. 1210–1255.
  • Louis J. Morié believed this king died in either 1255 or 1258.
"These eight did not mount the throne."

Solomonic dynasty before the Ethiopian-Adal war (247 years)

"Chronological table of the sovereigns from Yekuno Amlak, Emperor, and of his posterity, all issued from the ancient dynasties which were raised to the throne".

Note: The following emperors are historically verified. However, some of the reign dates listed below are not used by Ethiopian historians and are inaccurate. For the correct reign dates, see List of emperors of Ethiopia.

The Solomonic dynasty is historically verified, but the dates included on Tafari's regnal list do not always match with the generally accepted dates used by historians, even when taking into account the 7 or 8-year gap between the Ethiopian calendar and the Gregorian calendar.

Historian Manfred Kropp [de] was skeptical of the way this dynasty is often referred to as the "Solomonic" or "Solomonid" dynasty, which he believes was a creation of European Renaissance scholars. He noted that Ethiopian chronicles refer to the throne of the monarchy as the "Throne of David", not Solomon. Tafari's regnal list certainly makes no direct reference to this dynasty being called the "Solomonic" line, only that they were descended from the earlier ancient dynasties.

No.
Name
Picture Length of reign
Reign dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
"Year of the World"
Alternate names Notes
269 Yekuno Amlak 15 years 1253–1268 6753–6768 Tasfa Iyasus
  • Son of Edem Asagad.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1270–1285 (15 years).
  • 'Yekuno Amlak' means "There shall be to him sovereignty".
  • While many historians accept that Yekuno Amlak became ruler of Ethiopia after defeating the last Zagwe king at the Battle of Ansata, James Bruce related a different tradition where the monk Tekle Haymanot persuaded Na'akueto La'ab to abdicate in favour of Yekuno Amlak, who was reigning at Shewa, where a line of princes from Dil Na'od had continued to rule after the original Solomonic line was deposed by Gudit.
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 13 years, from 1255 to 1268.
270 Yasbeo Tseyon 9 years 1268–1277 6768–6777 Yagbe'u Seyon
Salomon
  • Son of Yekuno Amlak.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1285–1294 (9 years).
  • 'Yagbe'a Seyon' means "He [God] shall bring back Zion".
271 Tsenfa Arad 1 year 1277–1278 6777–6778 Senfa Ared
  • Son of Yagbe'u Seyon.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1294–1295 (1 year).
  • E. A. Wallis Budge called this king Senfa 'Ar'ed IV, acknowledging the reigns of Akaptah Tsenfa Ared (no. 167), Atsgaba Seifa Arad (no. 195) and the unnumbered Tsinfa Arad from the Israelite dynasty on Tafari's list.
272 Hesba Asagad 1 year 1278–1279 6778–6779 Hezba Asgad
  • Son of Yagbe'u Seyon.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1295–1296 (1 year).
273 Kedme Asagad 1 year 1279–1280 6779–6780 Qedma Asgad
  • Son of Yagbe'u Seyon.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1296–1297 (1 year).
274 Jan Asagad 1 year 1280–1281 6780–6781 Jin Asgad
  • Son of Yagbe'u Seyon.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1297–1298 (1 year).
  • Name means "venerable majesty".
275 Sabea Asagad 1 year 1281–1282 6781–6782 Saba Asgad
  • Son of Yagbe'u Seyon.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1298–1299 (1 year).
  • E. A. Wallis Budge called this king Sab'a Asgad (II).
276 Wedma Arad 15 years 1282–1297 6782–6797 Wedem Arad
  • Son of Yekuno Amlak.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1299–1314 (15 years).
277 Amda Tseyon I 30 years 1297–1327 6797–6827 Gebre Mesqel
  • Son of Wedem Arad.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1314–1344 (30 years).
  • 'Amda Seyon' means "Pillar of Zion".
  • Not numbered on Tafari's list.
278 Saifa Ared 28 years 1327–1355 6827–6855 Newaya Krestos
  • Son of Amda Seyon I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1344–1372 (28 years).
  • 'Newaya Krestos' means "Vessel of Christ".
279 Wedma Asfare 10 years 1355–1365 6855–6865 Newaya Maryam
Wedem Asfare
Gemma Asfare
  • Son of Newaya Krestos.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1372–1382 (10 years).
280 Dawit 30 years 1365–1395 6865–6895
  • Son of Newaya Krestos.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1382–1413 (31 years).
  • Third monarch named "Dawit" on this regnal list list, after Dawit II (no. 156) and Armah Dawit (no. 226).
281 Tewodoros 4 years 1395–1399 6895–6899 Walda Anbasa
  • Son of Dawit I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1413–1414 (9 months).
  • First of two Ethiopian emperors named "Tewodros", however Tewodros II reigned after 1779, the year this regnal list ends.
282 Yeshak 15 years 1399–1414 6899–6914 Gabra Masqal
  • Son of Dawit I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1414–1429 (15 years).
283 Andreyas 6 months 1414 6914
  • Son of Yeshaq I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1429–1430 (1 year).
284 Hesba Nañ 4 years and 6 months 1414–1418 6914–6918 Takla Maryam
  • Son of Dawit I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1430–1433 (3 years).
  • 'Takla Maryam' means 'Plant of Mary'.
285 Bedl Nan
[sic]
6 months 1418–1419 6918–6919 Sarwe Iyasus
Mehreka Nan
  • This king's name is likely an error, as his actual name was "Sarwe Iyasus". The name "Bedl Nan" is the throne name of the next monarch Amda Iyasus.
  • Son of Takla Maryam.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1433 (4 or 8 months)
  • "Sarwe Iyasus" means "Prop of Jesus".
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 1 year and 6 months, from 1418 to 1419.
286 Amde Tseyon
[sic]
7 years 1419–1426 6919–6926 Amda Iyasus
Badel Nan
  • This king's name is likely an error, as his actual name was "Amda Iyasus".
  • Son of Takla Maryam.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1433–1434 (8 months).
287 Zara Yakob 34 years 1426–1460 6926–6960 Kwestantinos
  • Son of Dawit I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1434–1468 (34 years).
288 Boeda Maryam 10 years 1460–1470 6960–6970 Cyriacus
  • Son of Zara Yaqob.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1468–1478 (10 years).
  • "Baeda Maryam" means "he who is in the hand of Mary".
  • First of three Ethiopian emperors named "Baeda Maryam", however the latter two reigned after 1779, the year in which this regnal list ends.
289 Iskender 16 years 1470–1486 6970–6986 Kwestantinos
  • Son of Baeda Maryam I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1478–1494 (16 years).
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 16 years and 5 months.
290 Amda Tseyon II 1 year 1486–1487 6986–6987
  • Son of Eskender.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1494 (6 months).
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 1 year and 6 months.
  • Not numbered on Tafari's list.
291 Naod 13 years 1487–1500 6987–7000
  • Son of Baeda Maryam I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1494–1508 (14 years).
"Of the posterity of Yekuno Amlak up to the reign of Naod 23 sovereigns ruled over Ethiopia; in all 291 [sic] sovereigns."

Solomonic dynasty during the Ethiopian-Adal war (55 years)

Note: The following emperors are historically verified. However, some of the reign dates listed below are not used by Ethiopian historians and are inaccurate. For the correct reign dates, see List of emperors of Ethiopia.

Text accompanying this section:

The following three kings are usually considered part of the Solomonic dynasty, but are separated by Tafari into a different group, likely because the conquest of three-quarters of Ethiopia by Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi took place during this time.

No.
Name
Picture Length of reign
Reign dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
"Year of the World"
Alternate names Notes
292 Lebna Dengel 32 years 1500–1532 7000–7032 Wanag Sagad
Dawit
  • Son of Na'od.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1507–1540 (33 years).
  • Tafari states that 15 years after Lebna Dengel ascended to the throne, "Gran devastated Ethiopia for fifteen years". Historians accept the Gregorian dates for the Ethiopian–Adal war as 1529–1543, beginning 22 years after the beginning of Lebna Dengel's reign rather than the 15-year figure used by Tafari.
  • "Lebna Dengel" means "incense of the virgin".
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 30 years, from 1500 to 1530. This results in all kings until Sarsa Dengel having their reign dates pushed back by 2 years compared to Tafari's list.
293 Galawdewos 19 years 1532–1551 7032–7051 Mar Gelawdewos
Asnaf Sagad
  • Son of Lebna Dengel.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1540–1559 (19 years).
294 Minas 4 years 1551–1555 7051–7055 Admas Sagad
  • Son of Lebna Dengel.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1559–1563 (4 years).
"Grand total: 294 [sic] sovereigns."

The House of Gondar (224 years)

Note: The following emperors are historically verified. However, some of the regnal dates listed below are not used by Ethiopian historians and are inaccurate. For the correct dates, see List of emperors of Ethiopia.

The Gondarian Line of the Solomonic dynasty is usually defined as beginning with the reign of Susenyos; however, Tafari includes the 3 prior kings to Susenyos as part of this line as well. This is likely because Sarsa Dengel moved the centre of the Ethiopian empire away from Shewa to the Begemder province, where Gondar is located.

The regnal list omitted Susenyos II who reigned briefly in 1770. Susenyos II was said to be an illegitimate son of Iyasu II, but his claims are dubious and this is the most likely reason for his omission.

No.
Name
Picture Length of reign
Reign dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
"Year of the World"
Alternate names Notes
295 Sartsa Dengel 34 years 1555–1589 7055–7089 Malak Sagad
  • Son of Menas.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1563–1597 (34 years).
  • "Sarsa Dengel" means "sprout of the virgin".
296 Yakob 9 years 1589–1598 7089–7098 Malak Sagad
  • Son of Sarsa Dengel.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1597–1603, 1604–1606 (8 years).
  • Historians generally consider Yakob's reign as divided into 2 parts, interrupted by the brief reign of Za Dengel. However, Tafari places Za Dengel as a direct successor at the end of Yakob's uninterrupted 9-year reign.
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 7 years, from 1587 to 1594. This results in all kings until Susenyos I having their reign dates pushed back by 4 years compared to Tafari's list.
297 Za Dengel 1 year 1598–1599 7098–7099 Atsnaf Sagad
  • Nephew of Sarsa Dengel.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1603–1604 (1 year).
298 Susneyos 28 years 1599–1627 7099–7127 Seltan Sagad
Malak Sagad
  • Grandson of Lebna Dengel.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1606–1632 (26 years).
299 Fasil 35 years 1627–1662 7127–7162 Basilide
Alam Sagad
  • Son of Susenyos I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1632–1667 (35 years).
  • Aleka Taye considered this king to be the "founder of Gondar". Taye also claims this king ruled for 36 years, from 1623 to 1659.
300 Degu-Johannis I 15 years 1662–1677 7162–7177 Yohannes
  • Son of Fasilides.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1667–1682 (15 years).
  • Aleka Taye called this king "Yohannes the Benevolent". Taye also claimed this king reigned from 1659 to 1674.
  • Not numbered on Tafari's list.
301 Adyam Sagad Iyasu I 25 years 1677–1702 7177–7202 Adyam Sagad
  • Son of Yohannes I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1682–1706 (25 years).
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 24 years, from 1674 to 1698. This results in the next two kings having their reign dates pushed back by 4 years compared to Tafari's list.
  • Not numbered on Tafari's list.
302 Takla Haymanot I 2 years 1702–1704 7202–7204 Le'al Sagad
  • Son of Iyasu I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1706–1708 (2 years).
  • Not numbered on Tafari's list.
303 Tewoflus 3 years 1704–1707 7204–7207 Walda Anbasa
  • Son of Fasilides.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1708–1711 (3 years).
304 Yostos 4 years 1707–1711 7207–7211 Tsehay Sagad
  • Great-grandson of Yohannes I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1711–1716 (5 years).
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 5 years, from 1703 to 1708. This results in the next two kings having their reign dates pushed back by 3 years compared to Tafari's list.
305 Dawit 5 years 1711–1716 7211–7216 Adbar Sagad
  • Son of Iyasu I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1716–1721 (5 years).
  • Fourth king of this name to appear on this regnal list.
306 Bakaffa 9 years 1716–1725 7216–7225 Asma Giyorgis
Masih Sagad
  • Son of Iyasu I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1721–1730 (9 years).
307 Birhan Sagad Iyasu II 24 years 1725–1749 7225–7249 Iyasu
Alem Sagad
  • Son of Bakaffa.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1730–1755 (25 years).
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 25 years, from 1722 to 1747. This results in all kings until Tekle Giyorgis I having their reign dates pushed back by 2 years compared to Tafari's list.
  • Not numbered on Tafari's list.
308 Iyoas 15 years 1749–1764 7249–7264 Adyam Sagad
  • Son of Iyasu II.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1755–1769 (14 years).
309 Johannis II 5 months and 5 days 1764 7264
  • Son of Iyasu I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1769 (5 months).
  • Not numbered on Tafari's list.
310 Takla Haymanot II 8 years 1764–1772 7264–7272 Admas Sagad
  • Son of Yohannes II.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1769–1770, 1770–1777 (8 years).
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 7 years and 7 months.
  • Not numbered on Tafari's list.
311 Solomon 2 years 1772–1774 7272–7274
  • Grandson of Iyasu II.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1777–1779 (2 years).
312 Takla Giyorgis 5 years 1774–1779 7274–7279 Feqr Sagad
  • Son of Yohannes II.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1779–1784 (first reign) (5 years).
"Of the posterity of Sartsa Dengel up to the reign of King Takla Giyorgis 18 sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia. From Ori to Takla Giyorgis the total is 312 [sic] sovereigns."

Subsequent monarchs

Empress Zauditu, the incumbent Ethiopian monarch at the time the regnal list was written, pictured in 1921.

Tafari's regnal list concludes with the end of the first reign of Takla Giyorgis, after which the Emperors of Ethiopia had significantly diminished power compared to before. By the time Tekle Giyorgis I begun his reign, Ethiopia had already entered the "Zemene Mesafint" or Era of the Princes, during which the emperor was merely a figurehead. Tekle Giyorgis I himself received the nickname Fiṣame Mengist ("the end of the government"), reflecting his status as the last emperor to exercise authority on his own.

Charles F. Rey provided a list of monarchs that reigned after Takla Giyorgis I, with dates following the Gregorian calendar. Rey noted that from around 1730 to 1855, the kings of Ethiopia had no real power. The power was held by influential Rases, such Ras Mikael Suhul of Tigre (1730–1780), Ras Guksa of Amhara (1790–1819), his son Ras Maryre and grandson Ras Ali.

Rey's list includes the majority of emperors from Iyasu III to the then-incumbent empress Zewditu and prince-regent and heir Tafari Makanannon (the future Haile Selassie). Rey's list however ignored the reigns of Salomon III and Tekle Giyorgis II, as well as the repeated reigns of Tekle Giyorgis I, Demetros and Yohannes III after their first reign. Rey also names Tekle Haymanot of Gondar as emperor of Ethiopia from 1788 to 1789, although he usually not accepted as a legitimate monarch of Ethiopia.

Sources of information from Louis J. Morié's Histoire de l'Éthiopie

The following collapsible tables compare the list of kings found in Louis J. Morié's Histoire de l'Éthiopie (Volumes 1 and 2) with the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list.

In the first volume, after the so-called "Blemmyes dynasty", Morié continued naming kings of Nubia, grouped together as the "Nobate dynasty" (548–c. 1145), the "kings of Dongola" (c. 1145–1820) and the "kings of Sennar". However, Tafari's regnal list ignores Nubian and Sudanese kings after the fall of the Kingdom of Kush.

Comparison between Louis J. Morié's Nubian regnal list and the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list

Louis J. Morié 1922 regnal list Additional information
Name/Dynasty Reign dates and length Ref. Name Reign length Numbered Position
Pre-Flood Kings of Africa8544–6282 BC Tribe of Ori or Aram — 4530–3244 BC The name used for the first ruler on the 1922 regnal list, "Ori", stems from Morié's claim that this dynasty was called the "Aurites", and that Aram had inspired the name of his country, "Aurie" or "Aeria".
Aram c. 8300–8200 BC (100 years) Ori or Aram 60 years 1 The so-called "Soleyman" dynasty from Coptic and Arabic folklore that ruled over Egypt in the Antediluvian era. The order is the same as recorded on the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list. The majority of the names also match, though some were altered for the Ethiopian regnal list.
Gariak I c. 8200 BC Gariak I 66 years 2
Gankam Gannkam 83 years 3
Borsa (Queen) Borsa (Queen) 67 years 4
Gariak II Gariak II 60 years 5
Djan I Djan I 80 years 6
Djan II Djan II 60 years 7
Zeyn al-Zaman Zeenabzamin 58 years 9
Sehelan Sahlan 60 years 10
El-Rian I Elaryan 80 years 11
Nimroud Nimroud 60 years 12
Daloukah (Queen) Eylouka (Queen) 45 years 13
Sahloug c. 6700–6672 BC (28 years) Saloug 30 years 14
Scharid I c. 6672–6600 BC (72 years) Khaird 72 years 15
Houjib c. 6600–6500 BC (100 years) Hogeb 100 years 16
Makaos c. 6500–6400 BC (100 years) Makaws 70 years 17
Aphar c. 6400–6350 BC (50 years) Affar 50 years 19
Malinos c. 6350–6282 BC (68 years) Milanos 62 years 20
Soleyman Tchaghi c. 6282 BC Soliman Tehagui 73 years 21
The God-Kings or Divine Dynasty5880–c. 5500 BC Tribe of Kam — 2713–1985 BC
Ag'azyan Dynasy —1985–982 BC
Kham 5880–5802 BC (78 years) Kam 78 years 22
Kousch 5802 BC–? Kout 50 years 23
As-oun
Mazig
Hathor (Queen)
Scheba I c. 5600 BC Saba I 30 years 31 Seba, son of Cush.
Sabta Sebtah 30 years 25
Raema
Sabtekha Sabe I 30 years 40
Habesch Habassi 40 years 24 Morié stated that "Habesch" who was the father of the Abyssinians. He later claimed that Habesch was a son of Cush who ruled in Axum while the other sons of Cush ruled different regions.
Rehoum
Naphtoukh
Loud
Tetoun
Ankh (Queen)
Selk (Queen)
Aubal
Nehasset Nais 30 years 29 Morié mentioned a story of a Nubian courtesan named "Nahaset Nais" ("Nahaset the black") who drowned all her lovers in the Red Sea until she suffered the same fate at the hands of the Egyptian king "Hor-ka-am" (Horus), who is placed directly after Nehasset Nais on the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list. "Horkam" is an alternate name for the Egyptian god Horus used by Morié. He is identified by Morié with Raamah, a son of Cush. Morié also claims that Horkam/Raamah ruled over a coastal region of Ethiopia.
Horkam 29 years 30
Scheba II c. 5550 BC
Iehouda
Malouli
The Meroitesc. 5500–c. 1800 BC
Mentou-Rai c. 5500–5450 BC (50 years) Manturay 35 years 38 Morié equated the Iranian god Mithra or Mithras with the Egyptian god Mentu (or "Mentou-Ra"). Morié described "Mentou-Rai" and "Ra-khou" as the "Ethiopian Menes and son" and the first legislators of Aethiopia, as well as regulating solar worship. Morié identified "Re-khou" with Phlegyas.
Ra-khou c. 5450 BC Rakhu 30 years 39
Sebi I Between 4360 and 4100 BC Sabe I 30 years 40
Sousel Atozanis 20 years 42 Morié used the name "Attozanes" as one of a number of alternate names for the Kushite king Aktisanes.
First conquest of Egypt during the Eighth dynastyBetween 3491 and 3358 BC
Second conquest of Egypt during the Thirteenth dynasty2398 BC
Snouka I Menken 2398–2385 BC (in Egypt) (13 years) Senuka I 17 years 56 Morié gave the name "Snouka I Menken" to the Kushite king Aktisanes and stated that he dethroned the last king of the Thirteenth dynasty and founded the Fourteenth dynasty. "Snouka I Menken" ruled Egypt for 13 years before being deposed and expelled by the second king of the Fourteenth dynasty, called "Hakori III" or "Akhoréos". This statement was inspired by a narrative told by Diodorus.
Her-Hathor I c. 2150 BC Her Hator I 20 years 54 Morié identified this king with the ancient Greek mythical figure Erythras for unclear reasons; he believed that this king was a contemporary of Esau. Even though Morié called this particular king "Her Hator I", the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list reserves this regnal number and name for the king Morié called "At-Hor". Aleka Taye called Her Hator II "Herhator Ertas" on his regnal list, based on Morié's original narrative.
Ba-en-Khons 2072–2059 BC (13 years)
Ramenpahte 20 years 44 Morié claimed that this was the name of an Ethiopian nobleman who was supposed to marry "Béroua" (or Meroe), a daughter of "Ba-en-Khons"/Cambyses, but she was taken by the king to be his own wife.
Poeri I Between 3817 and 1800 BC Piori I 15 years 46 Morié stated this king reigned during a time when Rama (a Hindu god that Morié claimed was originally Maharaja of Magadha and Ayodhya) was able to conquer the whole of India, Ceylon and Arabia before arriving in Egypt and fought against the Pharaoh, who was killed in the fighting. The Pharaoh's successor then became a tributary to Rama and the king of Ethiopia, "Poeri", followed his example without engaging in battle with Rama. The empire of Rama did not survive its founder.
The Invasion of Rama — The Hyksos — c. 1914–c. 1700 BC Ag'azyan Dynasty —1985982 BC The Hyksos or "Pasteurs" dynasty reigned after Aethiopia's conquest by Rama.
Akhnas c. 1914–1885 BC (29 years) Akbunas Saba II 55 years 47 Morié named Sheba, son of Raamah, as "Sheba II" and specifically notes that he ruled a part of Ethiopia. Morié also claimed that Sheba II built the city of "Sheba" in Ethiopia, named after himself, and also built "Hasabo" (the "City of the South") which later became Meroe. This narrative is partially based on Josephus's text Antiquities of the Jews, in which he described Sheba as a walled city in Aethiopia that was renamed Meroe by Cambyses II. "Ankhnas" was a supposedly "little-known" ruler of Aethiopia named by Morié who believed the name to be translated into Greek as Oceanus.
Nekhti I c. 1885–1830 BC (55 years) Nakehte Kalnis 40 years 48 Morié identified "Nekhti I" as the husband of Amalthea, though does not give an explanation why.
Kasiyope 19 years 49 Cassiopeia or "Kassiopée" is named by Morié as a monarch of Ethiopia and is, for unclear reasons, identified with the priest Khonsuemheb from the ancient Egyptian ghost story "Khonsuemheb and the Ghost". Morié uses the name "Kassiopée I" to refer to an otherwise unnamed queen of Ethiopia who plotted with Set the assassination of Osiris according to one version of the Osiris myth as recounted by Plutarch.

Morié used this name a second time to refer to the wife of "Sebi III", whom he identifies with Cepheus. The second "Kassiopée" is also known as "Kassiépée" or "Anna-Melekît", allegedly a daughter of "Cynthia". Morié identified the "Kassiopée II" with the Syrian and Mesopotamian goddess Anammelech. "Kassiopée II" is the famous Cassiopeia of Greek mythology while "Kassiopée I" is a queen regnant who appears on the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list as the 49th ruler.
Sebi II c. 1830–1815 BC (15 years) Sabe II 15 years 50 Husband of "Kassiopée the Elder". Morié claimed that some people believed this king was deified as the Semitic god Adrammelech. Aleka Taye called this king "Sabe II Ayibe" on his regnal list, inspired by the name "Adrammelech" being associated with Sabe II in Morié's narrative.
Nekhti II c. 1815–1760 BC (55 years)
Atew I c. 1760–1700 BC (60 years) Etiyopus I 56 years 51 Morié named this king as a son of the Roman god Vulcan, following the narrative written by Pliny the Elder.
The Meroites — c. 1700–c. 1650 BC
Nower-Ari c. 1700–1670 BC (30 years) Lakndun Nowarari 30 years 52 Morié claimed this king was the father of Ahmose-Nefertari, wife of the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose I. Morié additionally claimed that "Nower-Ari"'s wife was called "Ahhotep", similar to Ahmose's mother Ahhotep I, though Morié clarified that she should not be confused with Ahmose's mother. However, Ahmose-Nefertari's father was in fact the Egyptian pharaoh Seqenenre Tao.
Thout-em-heb c. 1670–1650 BC (20 years) Tutimheb 20 years 53 Morié claimed this king was defeated by Moses, who was the head of the army of pharaoh Amenemhat I.
The Jethrides — c. 1650–c. 1515 BC Morié claimed that pharaoh Amenhotep I replaced "Thout-em-heb" with one of his astrologers named "At-Hor" (identified with Jethro, father of Zipporah and father-in-law of Moses), son of "Ra-oëri" (or "Raguel"). King "At-Hor" was succeeded by his son "Kheb-ab" (Hobab).

Morié named Hephaestus as father of "Aethiops". This piece of information was combined with a later section on king "At-Hor" to provide the placement of king "Her Hator I" on the 1922 regnal list as the predecessor of "Etiyopus II". Aleka Taye called this king "Yotor" on his version of the regnal list, based on the name "At-Hor".

"Atew II"'s daughter married "Danaos", nomarch of Tanis, possibly the same person as the mythical figure Danaus.

At-Hor c. 1650–1625 BC (25 years) Her Hator II 20 years 54
Kheb-ab c. 1625–1572 BC (53 years)
Atew II c. 1572–1570 BC (2 years) Etiyopus II 30 years 55
Nekhti III c. 1570–1515 BC (55 years)
Third conquest of Egypt during the Eighteenth dynasty — 1512 BC and 1477 BC
The Meroites — c. 1515–c. 1365 BC
Snouka II Menken c. 1515–1499 BC (in Aethiopia) (16 years)
1512–1499 BC (in Egypt) (13 years)
Senuka I 17 years 56 According to Morié's narrative, "Snouka II Menken" was the High Priest of Amun and had support from the Egyptian people, who were revolting against Akhenaten and the Atenist religion at the time. "Snouka II Menken" was able to defeat Akhenaten in 1512 BC and became ruler of Egypt until his death, afterwards allowing Egyptians to choose a native Egyptian as the next king. Modern Egyptology however dates Akhenaten's reign to much later, c. 1351–1334 BC, unlike Morié's dating.

Aleka Taye's version of the Ethiopian regnal list calls the 56th king "Senuka Menkon" after Morié.
Bennou I 1499–1491 BC (8 years) Bonu I 8 years 57 Morié identified the Egyptian god Bennu (or "the Phoenix, Bennou") as a king of Ethiopia (i.e. Nubia). This is because of his belief that the name of the ancient Egyptian city Hebenu meant "home of the phoenix".
Moumeses (Queen) 1491–1487 BC (4 years) Mumazes (Queen) 4 years 58 Morié stated that "Bennou I" was succeeded by his daughter "Moumésès (Moso)", who was said to ride a chariot dragged by bulls. Her name supposedly meant "Child of water, of the Nile". This name was inspired an alternate name used by Morié for Moses, "Moumësès (Moïse)". Morié claimed that, according to ancient Greek scholar Alexander Polyhistor, "Moso" had apprently been a female legislator to the Jews. Morié believed that there had been some confusion with accounts claiming that "Moso" was a legislator of the Jews, and other accounts claiming that Moses was a legislator for the Aethiopians. He believed that it was more likely that "Moso" referred to woman ruling over Aethiopia.
Aruas 1487 BC (7 months) Aruas (Queen) 7 months 59 Morié stated that queen "Moumésès (Moso)" was succeeded by her son "Arouas". His name supposedly means "Precious Existence" and was sometimes been confused with Aaron, elder brother of Moses. The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list replicated the name, order of succession and reign length, but changed the gender of "Arouas"/Aruas to female. Aleka Taye's version of the regnal list does not specify the gender of this ruler.
Amen-as-ro I 1487–c. 1470 BC (17 years) Amen Asro I 30 years 60 This king supposedly briefly ruled Egypt as well for 2 years (1477–1475) before being driven out of Egypt by "Nowertai", a brother of pharaoh Ay.
Poeri II Between 1460 and 1400 BC Piori II 15 years 62 Morié mentioned a painting of pharaoh Seti I seated in a chapel while his son prince Ramesses brings with him the Aethiopian prince "Amen-em-hat", son of king "Poeri". These figures are the Viceroys of Kush named Paser I and Amenemopet, who were father and son and served as Viceroys during the reigns of the pharaohs from Ay to Seti I. Morié believed that "Amen-em-hat I" attempted a revolt against Ramesses II.
Amen-em-hat I c. 1375–1370 BC (5 years) Amen Emhat I 40 years 63
Protawos 33 years 67 Morié mentions Proteus as a king of Egypt from Greek mythology.
Khonsi c. 1370–1365 BC (5 years) Konsi Hendawi 5 years 69 According to Morié, this king was born in India and arrived in Aethiopia with a Hindu colony. Morié earlier claimed that in c. 1370 BC, a Hindu colony settled in Aethiopia, and this was the reason why some ancient Greek writers mentioned Aethiopians of Indian origin. Morié described "Khonsi" as a "hero remarkable for his beauty and size". He also stated that "Khonsi" was the son of an incestuous union, "committed unwittingly", between king "Ganges", previously called "Khliaros", and his mother, the goddess Ganga. Additionally, "Khonsi" was apparently the brother of "Limnate" and "Princess Limniaké", the latter being the mother of "Atys the Indian" who was killed the wedding of Perseus, the legendary founder of Mycenae. Morié claimed that "Khonsi" had come to Aethiopia and ruled there after going into exile following the death of his father by suicide. Despite having a "glorious reign" in which he founded "60 cities" and "drained swamps", he was nonetheless put to death by his subjects. The name "Khonsi" is similar to the name of the Egyptian god Khonsu and "Gangès" is a clear reference to the Ganges river.
The Bennides — 1365–1314 BC
Bennou II c. 1365–1363 BC (2 years) Bonu II 2 years 70 According to Morié, "Bennou II" was married to several women, including:

Additionally, he fathered children whose mothers are not known:

In total, he had 13 children.

These marriages show that "Bennou II" is to be equated with several male mythological figures:

Such identifications result in much confusion around "Bennou II". In particular, it is odd that Morié should claim this king was both Aleus and married to a daughter of Aleus, even though there is no tradition telling of an incestous marriage between them.

Morié claimed that "Bennou II"/"Phoenix" had settled in Aethiopia due to his sister Europa being kidnapped by the Cretans and Agenor forbidding his sons to return until she was found. "Bennou II"/"Phoenix" was unpopular because he was considered a usurper and abdicated in favour of his son Cepheus after two years of rule. He later returned to Sidon to became its second "Egyptian king" after the death of Agenor according to Morié.

Additionally, Morié stated that "Sebi (Képhéos)" succeeded him at Meroe as king of Aethiopia, while another son "Bennou (Phinée)" was a nomarch of a province and was heir to the throne until Persius sowed disunity between them.

Sebi III 1363–1348 BC (15 years) Sebi III (Kefe) 15 years 71 "Sebi III" was the son of the previous king "Bennou II" and Morié claimed that Cepheus/"Sebi III" was deified as the ancient Sicilican god Adranus.

"Sebi III" was married to two women:

  • Cassiopeia or "Kassiopée" – also known as "Anna-Melekît" and a daughter of "Cynthia". She was one of the most beautiful women of her time. She had a daughter named Andromeda, otherwise known as "Lykomède" or "Deltoton".
  • "Ioppé" – daughter of Aeolus and inspiration behind the name of Jaffa.

The traditional narrative of Cassiopeia in partially recounted by Morié in association with the wife of "Sebi III", though with some slight differences. He claims that a kind of beauty contest took place in Greece in which Cassiopeia (or possibly Andromeda) found no success due to her "tanned complexion" and this led to an open war. Cassiopeia insulted the queen of Crete and this led to the Greeks invading Aethiopia. In the ninth year of "Képhée"'s reign, a Greek fleet led by "Kétos" or "Karkharias" attacked the coast of Aethiopia and seized the port of Jaffa, where Cepheus was residing, and forced the king to give his daughter Andromeda in marriage to him. The oracle of Amun advised to king to grant this request and Cepheus/"Képhée" agreed to this on the condition that the Greeks do not stop trade with Aethiopia. Andromeda was unhappy with this arrangement but was nonetheless taken to the ship of "Kétos". She was rescued by Perseus, who killed "Kétos" and returned her to her father. Perseus married Andromeda after killing "Bennou (Phinée)", a brother of "Sebi III", who the king had once promised his daughter's hand in marriage. One of the children of Perseus and Andromeda was "Képhène", named after "Képhée", who was the father of the Aethiopian king "Erythras III".

"Sebi III" was a powerful king who possessed Syene (modern-day Aswan in Egypt), and had the Nasamones of Libya and the Aethiopians of Gedrosia as his tributes. "Sebi III" had 20 sons and 2 daughters. The sons include "Anhour-em-hat" (Andromada) and "Pehrer" or "Pehres", while the rest are little known. One of the daughters was named "Hathor-em-hat" (Andromeda).

Se-Khons 1348–1327 BC (21 years) Djagons 20 years 72 Aleka Taye's version of the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list calls the 72nd king "Jagonis Sekones". Morié claimed that it was during the reign of this king that Bacchus ravaged Aethiopia and "probably" killed the king. During the reign of "Se-Khons", an Egyptian prince named "Meneptah" (son of Sesostris) fled to Aethiopia and never left the country afterwards.
Fourth conquest of Egypt during the Nineteenth dynasty — 1327 BC
Snouka III Menkon 1327–1314 BC (in Aethiopia) (13 years)
1327–1324 BC (in Egypt) (3 years)
Senuka II 10 years 73 According to Morié, king "Snouka III-Menken" was secretly summoned by Egyptian nobles to declar war on pharaoh Amenmesse, who ruled Egypt with great cruelty. "Snouka III-Menken" defeated Amenmesse and ruled over Egypt for 3 years, during which time he ruled both Egypt and Aethiopia with kindness, equity and righteousness. He had the noses of thieves cut off before the thieves themselves were sent to Rhinocorura, located on the Egypt-Syria border (This story is inspired by that of Actisanes, who, according to Diodorus Siculus, founded Rhinocorura and conquered Egypt in the reign of pharaoh "Amasis"). "Snouka III-Menken" was eventually driven out of Egypt in 1324 BC by "Meneptah II", who was devoted to his minister named "Bai" (this likely refers to Siptah and Chancellor Bay). "Snouka III-Menken" held a son of "Meneptah I", named "Seti", as prisoner in Aethiopia and sent him to Egypt to cause embarressment to the pharaoh, but an unexpected compromise was reached and "Meneptah II" acknowledged "Seti" as his eventual successor Seti II. Morié's interpretation of events is completely at odds with modern-day Egyptology, which places Seti II before Siptah and acknowledges Siptah as a son of either Seti II, Amenmesse or Merneptah.
Helena 11 years 76 The name "Hemera" is an alternate name Morié used for Eos, wife of Tithonus. Hemera is more commonly known as a personification of day in Greek mythology but is sometimes identified with Eos.
The Perseides (Meroites) — 1314–1280 BC
Her Hathor II 1314–1285 BC (29 years) Her Hator II 30 years 78 According to Morié, "Her Hator II (Erythras)" was a later king who succeeded "Snouka III-Menken". "Her Hator II" (meaning "The Supreme Hathor") was a grandson of "Sebi III"/Cepheus through his daughter Andromeda and Perseus. Little is known of this king's reign and he drowned in Erythraean Sea, which gets its name from king "Her Hator II (Erythras)". This name also influenced the naming of Eritrea. He also named the continent of Africa "Kephenia" in honour of his grandfather. "Her Hator II" had no children.
Her Hathor III 1285–1284 BC (1 year) Her Hator III 1 year 79 According to Louis J. Morié, "Her Hator II" was succeeded by his nephew "Her Hator III (Erythras)", who was the son of Persus, son of Andromeda and Perseus, and king of the Persians. Morié stated that little is known about this king and me may have drowned in the Erythraean Sea rather than his predecessor.
Nekhti IV 1284–1280 BC (4 years) Akate IV (Za Sagado) 20 years 80 According to Morié, this king arrived in Aethiopia as head of a Greek or Egyptian colony.

Morié identified this king with several mythical figures:

Morié is unsure who the parents of "Nekhti IV" are, naming Neptune, "Kelene", Belus, Hyrieus, Bacchus, Apollo and Sandocus as potential candidates. Morié did however name Lycus and Orion as "Nekhti IV"'s brothers. This suggests that Hyrieus is the most likely father of "Nekhti IV", as he had a son named Lycus. In turn, this would suggest that "Nekhti IV" is meant to be identified with Nycteus, who was the brother of Lycus of Thebes and sometimes named as a son of Hyrieus.

"Nekti IV" has several wives:

  • Iphigenia – Princess of Mycenae and daughter of king Agamemnon. Morié gave her the alternate name "Metharme" and claimed she was the daughter of "Pygmalion", king of Cyprus. He also claimed she had sons with "Nekhti IV" named "Adonis" and "Oxyponos", as well as 50 daughters including Ida and Myrrha.
  • "Kallikopis" – Daughter of "Otreos", king of Phrygia.
  • "Amalthea" (also known as "Amentakehat", "Kenkhris", "Kenkhreis", "Arithya", "Adamantea" or "Polyxo") – Daughter of "Melissos", king of Crete (possibly referring to Melisseus). Morié claimed she was the mother of 2 daughters, "Entew" (Antiope) and "Nekht-Amen" (Nyctimene).

According to Morié, "Nekti IV" had many children including:

  • Myrrha (also equated with Nyctimene) – In Greek mythology, she was said to have had an incestuous with her father Cinyras, resulting in a son named Adonis. Morié repeats this story, suggesting that "Nekti IV" had a child with his daughter, as Cinyras did. Morié additionally claimed that Myrrha married her uncle "Ameni" or "Ammon".
  • Antiope – In some sources on Greek mythology, she was a daughter of Nycteus, wife of Epopeus and mother of Amphion and Zethus.
  • "Atomi" (or "Adonis I") – Apparently different from the more famous Adonis. "Adonis I" was married to "Isis" (i.e. Aphrodite) and was the father of Golgos, Beroe and "Anemone".
  • Oxyporos (or "Oxypnos" or "Oxyponos") – Son of Cinyras in Greek mythology.
  • "Paphos" – Possibly Paphos, although he was actually the son of Pygmalion.
  • "Marathon" – Possibly Metharme, who was actually a daughter of Pygmalion.
  • Braesia – Daughter of Cinyras in Greek mythology.
  • Laogora – Daughter of Cinyras in Greek mythology.
  • Laodice – Daughter of Cinyras and wife of Elatus.
  • Nycteïs – Daughter of Nycteus and Polyxo, wife of Polydorus, king of Thebes, and mother of Labdacus.
  • "Ida" – Wife of Tithonus (possibly referring to Eos).
  • Orsedice – Daughter of Cinyras in Greek mythology.
  • Alcyone – Daughter of Aeolus in Greek mythology.
  • Hera – Daughter of Cronus in Greek mythology.
  • Hyrmine – Daughter of Neleus or Nycteus in Greek mythology.
  • "Entew"/Antiope – Name of various Hellenistic mythological figures.
  • "Nekht-Amen"/Nyctimene – Daughter of Epopeus, king of Lesbos, in Greek mythology. The story of her impregnation by her father is repeated by Morié in relation to "Nekhti IV". Morié also equates Nyctimene with Myrrha, mother of Adonis, who also had a child by her father.

According to Morié, "Nekhti IV"'s daughter Antiope fled to the court of king Apis of Argos, who was charmed by her beauty and married her. Apis refused to return Antiope to "Nekhti IV", who then declared war on him. "Nekhti IV" later died of wound he received during a battle. Before his death, "Nekthi IV" asked his brother Lycus to avenge him, and Lycus later killed Apis, which brought an end to the war.

The Tithonides (Meroites) — 1280–c. 1230 BC
Tetouni 1280–1270 BC (10 years) Titon Satiyo 10 years 81 According to Morié's narrative, "Tithon" was a foreign prince and was the son of Laomedon of Troy and "Strymo" or "Strymno" (daughter of Scamander), and was a brother of Priam. According to Morié, "Tithon" was a "well built and great warrior" who left Mysia and became a Satrap of Susiana. "Tithon" later seized the country by arms and founded or "embellished" the city of Susa (This narrative was inspired by Herodotus's statement that Susa was "the city of Memnon".). "Tithon" attempted a conquest of Aethiopia but was taken prisoner by "Nekhti IV". However, he was later freed after a daughter of the king named "Ait" or "Ida" wished to marry him due to his handsome appearance. "Ait"/"Ida" was the daughter of "Nekhti IV" and "Hapi-aa-kenen" (Iphigenia) according to Morié.

"Tithon" and "Ait" had four sons:

  • "Amenemhat-Meiamun" (Memnon) – was "associated" with his father (i.e. co-regent) and was the oldest legitimate son.
  • "Her-Mentou"/"Hermathion I" – 4th son of "Tithonus"; Left Aethiopia and reigned over Emathia in Greece, which later became the Kingdom of Macedon.
  • "Khons-Ab" ("Kousch-Avil")
  • "Hor-em-heb" ("Eliops") – 5th son of "Tithonus"; Inspired the name of the Greek island Euboea.

"Tithon" also had another son with a concubine:

After "Nekhti IV"'s death, "Tithon" ascended the throne of Aethiopia and later took advantage of the troubles the emerged at the end of the Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt with the usurption of "Arisou" (possibly Amenmesse?) and conquered a part of Upper Egypt. "Tithon" gave his son Memnon the title of "Royal son of Abydos", similar to the way that "Prince of Kush" was given to sons of Egyptian pharaohs in the past. "Tithon" reigned during the time of the Trojan war, as recorded in Greek mythology, and sent 10,000 men and 200 war chariots under the command of his son Memnon, who killed many Greeks, including Antilochus. However, Memnon himself was killed after the Aethiopians were ambushed by the Thessalians. Memnon's body was burned and his bones were carried back to his father.

According to Morié, Memnon had several children:

  • "Paphlagonios" – son of "Hema", who lived in Asia Minor and gave her name to a stream flowed at the foot of Mount Ida and Paphlagonia in Turkey.
  • 9 daughters by "Thespia" or "Asope", daughter of "Asopos", who inspired the name of the Asopus river.

However, despite stating all of the above, Morié claims there were several "Memnons" and insisted that the "Memnon" who fought in the Trojan war was actually "Mhamnoun", the son of "Touklat-Adar I" (king of Assyria) and "Eos". According to Morié, "Tithonus" reached an advanced age and was overwhelmed by infirmiries. Because of this, he took his own life.

Her-Mentou 1270 BC Hermantu I 5 months 82 According to Morié's narrative, an illegitimate son of "Tithonus" usurped the throne after his death. "Her-Mentou"/"Hermathion" or "Se-Khons"/"Gigon II" was deceitful and cruel and was later killed by Hercules.
Amenemhat II 1270–1265 BC (5 years) Amen Emhat II 5 years 83 Louis J. Morié claimed that Memnon from Greek mythology was an Aethiopian king named "Amenemhat". In Morié's narrative, this king succeeded his half-brother "Her-Mentou"/Emathion. "Amenemhat II-Meiamoun" was born and died in Meroe and never went to Troy according to Morié (apparently this "Memnon" is different from the more famous Memnon). However, "Amenemhat II" did fight in a war abroad and was greatly missed by his people. He was initially buried in Meroe but his body was later transferred to Abydos in Egypt. The sites in Abydos called "Memnonia" by Strabo were supposedly named after "Amenemhat II-Meiamoun". The king also was the inventor of the Meroitic script according to Morié, though in reality the earliest surviving examples of it date to the 2nd century BC.
Khons-Ab I 1265–1260 BC (5 years) Konsab 5 years 84 In Morié's narrative, "Tithonus"'s son "Khons-Ab I" (or "Kousch-Avil-Dendan") ruled Aethiopia for 5 years, from 1265 to 1260 BC. Morié claimed that a civil war erupted in Aethiopia after the death of Memnon due to two rival claimants fighting over the throne. According to Morié, the name "Koush-Avil-Dendan" was supposedly recorded by the Assyrians (possibly referring to an Assyrian king) and meant "son of Dendan", referring to "Doudani" (or Tithonus). During the reign of "Khons-Ab I" (or possibly "Khons-Ab II"), Aethiopia experienced a rise in power following a victorious war against Iran. Morié believed that "Thraetaouna" (or Fereydun) invaded lands owned by "Khons-Ab I" and was defeated. Morié theorised that this was not recorded in Persian records because they did not wish to acknowledge their defeats. "Khons-Ab I" himself was defeated by "Khons-Ab II" in 1260 BC and subsequently fled and disappeared, or possibly died in battle. His followers fled to Troy and Cyzicus.
Khons-Ab II 1260–c. 1255 BC (5 years) Sannib 5 years 85 "Khons-Ab I" was directly followed by "Khons-Ab II" in Morié's narrative. This second "Khons-Ab" was not recorded in the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list but was recorded in other versions written by Heruy Wolde Selassie and Aleka Taye, suggesting that the name "Sannib" was an error on Tafari's version.
According to Louis J. Morié, "Khons-Ab II" was a brother of "Azi-Dahak X" (or "Akhemenes III") and son of "Bakkhemon", who was a son of Perseus. "Khons-Ab II" desired to reclaim the throne of Aethiopia that had once belonged to descendants of Perseus. After several years of civil war, "Khons-Ab II" won and became king in 1260 BC, restoring the throne to the "Perseide" dynasty. Morié claimed this king was a contemporary of Ramesses III (who actually reigned later, around 1186 to 1155 BC). According to Morié's narrative, Ramesses III was able to expand the Egyptian empire as far as south as the Tigray Region in modern-day Ethiopia, though there is no archaeological proof that this happened. The decline of Egyptian power after the reign of Ramesses III meant that Meroe and the Kingdom of Kush would no longer recognize the suzerainty of Egypt.
Snouka IV Menkon c. 1255–1240 BC (15 years) Sanuka III 5 years 86 According to Morié, apparently nothing is known of king "Snouka IV-Menken" or "Snouka IV (Aktisanes)" except that he was a contemporary of Jephthah.
Amen-As-Tat c. 1240–1230 BC (10 years) Amen Astate 30 years 88 Morié called this king "Amen-As-Tat" or "Monostatos" (the latter being a name used for a character in the opera The Magic Flute). When Ramesses VII was prince of Kush, a young princess he was engaged to named "Pat-Amen" was kidnapped with her servant by "Amen-As-Tat". The High Priest of Isis, named "Ousir-as-ro", along with three priestesses was able to bring back the princess to be married to Ramesses VII.
Ammonian dynasty (Napatite Branch) — 1100–541 BC Morié claimed that the next 100 years in Aethiopia after the reign of "Amen-As-Tat" remain shrouded in darkness. Morié noted that contemporary Egyptologists theorised that the High Priests of Amun in Upper Egypt founded the kingdom of Napata after being expelled from Egypt at the end of the New Kingdom of Egypt. He believed that this indeed took place, and Napata replaced the kingdom of Meroe, encompassing all of present-day Nubia and Abyssinia up to Aswan (although in reality the Napatan kings are not proven to have ruled over Abyssinia). Morié believed that after the death of the last king of the "Perseides" dynasty, "Her-Hor" entered Aethiopia with an army and was elected king. He was supposedly already the religious leader of the country before this.
Her-Hor 1110–1100 BC (In Egypt) (10 years)
1100–1094 BC (In Aethiopia) (16 years)
Herhor 16 years 89 Morié claimed that the weakening power of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt allowed the High Priests at Thebes to increase their own power in Upper Egypt and eventually claim Pharaonic titles. Morié noted that "Her-Hor" (Herihor) claimed the title "Prince of Kush", possibly referring to the title Viceroy of Kush. "Her-Hor" established his reign in 1100 BC and was recognised in Egypt, Aethiopia and Syria. According to Morié, a civil war erupted in Egypt between Smendes of the Twenty-first dynasty in Lower Egypt and Herihor which lasted 10 years until Herihor was driven out of Egypt. Herihor then fled to Aethiopia and took the tile of King of Napata. He had support from the descendants of the Egyptian High Priests who fled to Aethiopia during the reign of Akhenaten and together they developed a flourishing kingdom in Lower Nubia. "Her-Hor" would be an ancestor of the future Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt. This king and his descendants were initially allies of the Assyrian kings. Morié believed that "Her-Hor" introduced the practice of embalming to Aethiopia, where previously the dead were cremated.
Piankhi I 1094–1085 BC (9 years) Wiyankihi I 9 years 90 "Piankhi I" (Piankh) was a son and successor of "Her-Hor" in Louis J. Morié's narrative, and apparently did not rule over Upper Egypt. Some modern-day Egyptologists however now consider Piankh to actually be Herihor's predecessor. Additionally, Piankh certainly ruled over Upper Egypt and was Viceroy of Kush.
Pinotsem I 1085–1069 BC (16 years) Pinotsem I 17 years 91 "Piankhi I" was succeeded by his son "Pinotsem I" (Pinedjem I). In Morié's narrative, "Pinotsem I" was able to recover parts of Upper Egypt and was crowned at Thebes. His wife was "Tiouhathor-Honttaoui" (Duathathor-Henuttawy), who was a daughter of "Khonsoumos" and "Tontamoun" (Tentamun). "Pinotsem I" had two children, his successor "Pinotsem II" and a daughter named "Ouait-at-en-Mout" (Mutnedjmet).
Pinotsem II 1069–1028 BC (41 years) Pinotsem II 41 years 92 "Pinotsem II" married princess "Makera" of the Ramesside line to legitimize his rule, and had 2 sons with her named "Masaherta" (Masaharta) and "Ra-men-khoper" (Menkheperre). "Makera" died in childbirth with their third child, a daughter named "Moutemhat" (Maatkare Mutemhat).
Modern-day Egyptology now considers there to be only two High Priests of Amun named "Pinedjem". The information Louis J. Morié relates about "Pinotsem I" and "Pinotsem II" both refer to Pinedjem I.
Masaherta 1028–1012 BC (16 years) Massaherta 16 years 93 After the death of "Pinotsem II", his younger son "Masaherta" (Masaharta) seized the throne.
Ra-men-khoper 1012–998 BC (14 years) Ramenkoperm 14 years 94 "Masaherta" was followed to the throne by his brother "Ra-men-khoper" (Menkheperre). "Ra-men-khoper" married his niece "Isi-em-Kheb" (Isetemkheb), a daughter of "Masaherta". They had 3 children:
Pinotsem III 998–992 BC (6 years) Pinotsem III 7 years 95 "Pinotsem III" (Pinedjem II), son of "Ra-men-khoper", was a contemporary of king Solomon according to Louis J. Morié, and was married to "Neskhonsu" (Neskhons), a daughter of lady "Tonthontthouti" (Takhentdjehuti). "Pinotsem III" and "Neskhonsu" had 4 children:
Sebi IV 992–983 BC (9 years) Sabi IV 10 years 96 According to Louis J. Morié, there was a dispute over the succession to the throne after the death of "Pinotsem III". The Egyptian pharaoh "Psiounkha III" (Psusennes II) acted as arbitor and appointed "Sebi IV (Képhée)" as the king of Aethiopia. "Sebi IV" resided in "Ioppé" (Jaffa) and his parentage is apparently unknown, though he possibly is identifiable with Psusennes III. However, Morié does state that this king was a relative of Solomon. This later statement explains why this king was placed close to the reign of Makeda on the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list.
Ro-ke-Amen 983–958 BC (25 years) Menelik I 25 years 99 Morié's narrative names "Sebi IV"'s successor as "Ro-ke-Amen", a king who does not appear on the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list. Morié identified "Ro-ke-amen" with Luqman, a wise man who is named in the Quran. This identification is made because Luqman was said to be Nubian, although Morié himself noted he could have been Abyssinian. "Ro-ke-Amen" married "Neit-akert", a daughter of Egyptian pharaoh Psusennes II (possibly identifiable with Maatkare B, although she actually married Osorkon I).

Morié identifies "Ro-ke-Amen" as Menelik I, who is already mentioned in native Ethiopian/Abyssinian regnal lists and thus there was no need to include the name "Ro-ke-Amen" on the 1922 regnal list.

Fifth conquest of Egypt during the Twenty-second dynasty — 994 BC Dynasty of Menelik I — 982 BC–493 AD
Atserk-Amen I (Zerakh I) 958–943 BC (15 years) Sera I (Tomai) 26 years 101 In Louis J. Morié's narrative, king "Ro-ke-Amen" was succeeded by his son "Atserk-Amen I", who was the Biblical Zerah the Cushite. Morié was sceptical of a theory in mainstream Egyptology that identified Zerah the Cushite with Osorkon I or Osorkon II because Zerah is explicitly described in the Bible as being a king of Aethiopia and Morié believed it was unlikely at this time that the king of Aethiopia was the son of the king of Egypt, unless he had married a daughter of the Egyptian king and was able to seize the throne after the Egyptian king's death. Morié believed that there may have been some confusion over the status of Zerah's relationship to the pharaoh of Egypt, being a son-in-law rather than son of the king. Morié theorised that Zerah was a distinct individual to Osorkon II and was in fact his brother-in-law who raided Egypt on his path to Judah before being defeated by Asa. According to Morié, archeologists Émile Brugsch and François Lenormant theorized the original name of Zerah to be "Atserk-Amen".

The author of the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list did not use the name "Atserk-Amen" for the name of this king, but instead used the name "Sera" twice, first for the 101st king "Sera I (Tomai)" and secondly for the 104th king "Awseyo Sera II". Both Tomai and Awseyo appear on traditional Ethiopian regnal lists, but never with "Sera" added to their name. Louis J. Morié used "Zerah" as an alternate name for the first two kings named "Atserk-Amen" in his line of succession, who both align roughly with the positions of Tomai and Awesyo on the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list.
Amenhotep 943–884 BC (59 years) Amen Hotep Zagdur 31 years 102 According to Louis J. Morié, "Atserk-Amen I" was succeeded by his youngest son "Amenhotep", who was a son of "Isinowert" (daughter of Shoshenq I). He was able to retain his father's conquests in Libya but lost control of Thebes in Egypt. The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list identifies "Amenhotep" with "Zagdur", who is named on pre-1922 Ethiopian regnal lists, though never with the addition of "Amenhotep" to his name.
Ramessou 884–857 BC (27 years) Aksumay Ramissu 20 years 103 King "Amenhotep" was succeeded by his son "Ramessou (Ramses)". Apparently little is known of this king according to Morié, except that he built a temple to Ptah in Aethiopia's capital. The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list identifies this king with "Aksumay", who appears on some pre-1922 regnal lists but never with "Ramissu" added to his name.
Atserk-Amen II (Zerakh II) 857–818 BC (39 years) Awseyo Sera II 38 years 104 In Louis J. Morié's narrative, "Ramessou" was succeeded by "Atserk-Amen II", also known as "Zerakh II". Morié claimed that this king desired to invade the kingdom of Judah during the reign of Jehoram as revenge for the failure of the earlier invasion by "Zerakh I". King "Atserk-Amen II"/"Zerakh II" was apparently responsible for carrying off the whole family of Jehoram except his youngest son Ahaziah, as recorded in the Bible. The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list identified this king in Morié's narrative with "Awesyo", an Ethiopian king named on pre-1922 regnal lists who was never previously known as "Sera". The author of the 1922 regnal list merged Morié's history with the native Ethiopian regnal lists and kept the order of succession close to Morié's list. The name "Atserk-Amen" was not used for this king on the 1922 regnal list, but "Zerakh" was retained in the form of "Sera".
Shabaka I 780–768 BC (12 years) According to Morié, king "Shakaba I" ascended the throne of Aethiopia 40 years after the reign of "Atserk-Amen II"/"Zerakh II". The author of the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list omitted "Shabaka I" completely and instead named "Tawasya" as the king who reigned between Sera II and Piyankihi II. This king, previously known as "Tahawasya" or "Ta'asya", appears on some pre-1922 Ethiopian regnal lists, sometimes as the successor to Awesyo.
Sixth conquest of Egypt – 741 BC
Piankhi II 761–731 BC (in Aethiopia) (30 years)
741–731 BC (in Egypt) (10 years)
Abralyus Wiyankihi II 32 years 106 The next king in Louis J. Morié's narrative is "Piankhi II" (i.e. Piye, founder of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt). In Morié's narrative, the princes in Egypt implored Piankhi to help them prevent the expansion of territory under the Twenty-fourth dynasty Pharaoh Tefnakht, who ruled at Sais. Piankhi was able to defeat Tefnakht and established an empire stretching from "the Equator to the Mediterranean". Morié describes this as the sixth conquest of Egypt by Aethiopia and states that it took place in 741 BC, claiming that Piankhi annexed the Theban region, but left the Delta and Middle Egypt as vassals, with Osorkon IV ruling at Sais (although Morié calls him "Osorkon V").

The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list alters "Piankhi"'s names slightly to "Piyankihi" and identifies him with "Abralyus", a king who appears on some pre-20th century Ethiopian regnal lists.
Kashta 731–725 BC (6 years) Kashta Hanyon 13 years 108 According to Louis J. Morié, "Piankhi II" was succeeded by "Kashta". Modern-day Egyptology considers Kashta to have been Piye/Piankhi's predecessor rather than successor. The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list called this king "Kashta Hanyon", combining the name "Kashta" with "Hanyon", a king who appears on some earlier Ethiopian regnal lists under the name "Endor" or "Handadyo".

While Kashta was certainly related to Piye/Piankhi, Morié instead claimed that "Kashta" was of foreign origin and came to the throne by marriage to a daughter of "Piankhi II". "Kashta" was supposedly descended from a Theban family. During his reign, "Kashta" waged war against "Takelot IV", son of "Osorkon V", who ruled in the Delta region of Egypt and desired independence. "Kashta" was also able to defeat "Ahmose the Blind", known as Anysis to the Greeks (although Herodotus, who originally wrote of this event, claimed that Anysis was actually defeated by "Sabacos" rather than Kashta). However, Bakenranef, son of Tefnakht, was able to re-unify Egypt while Kashta was occupied with revolts in Napata and was able to bring the whole of Egypt back under his country, founding the Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt, as per Manethoian tradition. "Kashta" had two children, a son named Shabaka and a daughter named "Ameneritis".
Seventh and last conquest of Egypt – 725 BC
Shabaka II 725–715 BC (in Aethiopia) (10 years)
725–713 BC (in Egypt) (12 years)
Sabaka II 12 years 109 In Louis J. Morié's narrative, "Kashta" was succeeded by his son "Shabaka II". As a result of Morié's numbering, the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list mistakenly referred to this king as "Sabaka II" even though no prior king of this name appears on the 1922 list. According to Morié, Shabaka was able to conquer Libya, Cyrenaica and eventually Egypt. Egyptians were unhappy with Bakenranef due to his attempts at reforming Egyptian religion and welcomed Shabaka.
Nicauta Kandake I 10 years 110 The inclusion of a "Kandake" queen between "Sabaka" and "Tsawi Terhak Warada Nagash" may have been inspired by Louis J. Morié's description of Amenirdis I as a "Kantakeh" queen who ruled as regent during the reigns of three Aethiopian kings. It also may have been inspired by Morié's claim that Taharqa brought his mother "Isit" to Egypt and gave her the title of "Great Regent". Taharqa's mother was actually Abar.

In volume 2, Louis J. Morié used an "Nicanta" as an alternate name for the Queen of Sheba/Makeda. Regnal lists from Heruy Wolde Selassie and Aleka Taye used "Nikanta" for the name of this queen instead of "Nicauta".

Shabatoka 713–692 BC (in Egypt only) (21 years)
Tahraka 715–666 BC (in Aethiopia) (49 years)
692–666 BC (in Egypt) (26 years)
Tsawi Terhak Warada Nagash 49 years 111 Morié claimed that "Tahraka" conquered Egypt in 692 BC while "Shabatoka" was ruling it (although in reality both ruled Nubia and Egypt and their reigns did not take place next to each other). "Shabatoka" was later taken to Aethiopia and executed. Egypt was temporarily conquered by the Assyrian empire during "Tahraka"'s reign, but he was able to regain control of it. According to Morié, "Tahraka" at his peak ruled over an empire including Libya and North Africa up to the Strait of Gibraltar. Palestine and Assyria were also tributaries to "Tahraka". The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list calls this king "Terhak" and combines his name with those of two other kings who appear on certain pre-1922 Ethiopian regnal lists named "Tsawi" and "Warada Nagash". The two names are not known to appear on the same regnal lists.
Ourd-Amen I 666–660 BC (in Aethiopia) (6 years)
666–665 BC (in Egypt) (1 year)
Erda Amen Awseya 6 years 112 In Louis J. Morié's narrative, "Tahraka" was succeeded by his son-in-law "Ourd-Amen I". Morié claimed that when Taharqa married "Amentakehat" (Takahatenamun), she was a widow and had a son named Ourd-Amen, who claimed Thebes after Taharqa's death while the Assyrians took Memphis without difficulty. "Ourd-Amen I" was able to take back the whole of Egypt was recognised as Pharaoh in 666 BC, but was driven out by Ashurbanipal in 665 BC. The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list identified "Ourd-Amen I" with a king named "Awesyo" or "Ausanya", who appears on some pre-1922 Ethiopian regnal lists as the successor to king "Warada Nagash".
Nouat-Meiamoun 660–657 BC (in Aethiopia and Egypt) (3 years) Nuatmeawn 4 years 114 According to Morié's narrative history, "Nouat-Meiamoun" was a son of "Ourd-Amen I" and was elected by the Oracle of Amun in Napata to be king. "Nouat-Meiamoun" invaded Thebes during the early days of his reign and was eventually able to take Memphis and the Delta region, but eventually lost control of most of Egypt after 3 years under unclear circumstances. "Noaut-Meiamoun" is likely meant to be Tantamani. Peter Truhart believed that the name "Nuatmeawn" is an altered version of "Maute" or "Mawat", the name of a king who appears on some pre-1922 Ethiopian regnal lists. "Maute" is usually named as the successor to the short-reigning king "Gasyo" on these lists. This line of succession was replicated on the 1922 regnal list, which inserts "Gasiyo" between "Erda Amen"/"Ourd-Amen" and "Nautmeawn"/"Nouat-Meiamoun".
Piankhi III 657–652 BC (in Aethiopia and Thebes) (5 years) Tomadyon Piyankihi III 12 years 115 According to Louis J. Morié, "Nouat-Meiamoun" was succeeded by "Piankhi III", who was the widower of Amenirdis I. Morié claimed that after "Piankhi III"'s death, his cartouches were hammered out and erased, as if they belonged to a usurper. The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list names this king "Tomadyon Piyankihi". King "Tomadyon" or "Toma Seyon" appears on some pre-1922 Ethiopian regnal lists.
Amen-as-ro II 652–651 BC (in Egypt) (1 year)
652–650 BC (in Aethiopia) (2 years)
Amen Asro II 16 years 116 In Louis J. Morié's narrative "Amenasro II" was the son or brother of "Nouat-Meiamoun". Aethiopian power in Egypt came to end during his short reign due to the Ethiopians being expelled from Egypt by Psamtik I and the Assyrians (this actually happened in the reign of Tantamani). The Hermotybian division of the Egyptian military (made of approximately 240,000 Meshwesh warriors) apparently tried to rebel against Psamtik I but later emigrated en masse to Aethiopia. Psamtik begged them to return to Egypt, but they refused. This supposedly was the reason why they were later called the "Asmakh" (meaning "People on the left of the king") and were called by the Greeks the "Automoles" (Voluntary Emigrants) or "Sembrites". The "Asmakhs" gave themselves to the service of the king in Napata, "Amenasro II", who gave permission to conquer more territory on his behalf. Morié believed that this territory included what later became the Kingdom of Axum. The "Asmakhs" remained in Aethiopia and founded a capital city called "Esar" between the Blue Nile and White Nile, where their descendants lived for 300 years, and the territory was where the Shilluk Kingdom was later located. Despite the loss of a large part of his army, Psamtik would attempt to conquer Aethiopia and massacred many people there before relocating the southern boundary of Egypt to the second cataract of the Nile, and area called "Dodekaschoinos" by the Greeks. "Amenasro II"'s daughter and heir "Ait" was taken prisoner and given as a slave to Psamtik's daughter "Amen-merit". "Amenasro"'s wife queen "Hatasou" was killed. As revenge, "Amenasro II" waged war against Egypt but was captured by an Egyptian general named "Ramessou" and taken prisoner. However, "Ramessou" had fallen in love with "Ait" and attempted to flee Egypt with both her and her father "Amenasro". Psamtik's daughter "Amen-merit", who "Ramessou" was betrothed to, was jealous and foiled this plan. Only "Amenasro" was able to escape Egypt, but a group of Egyptians had been sent to find him and he later died while defending his life and freedom. "Ramessou" and "Ait" were sentenced to death.

"Amenasro II" had two daughters with his wife, including "Ait". According to Morié, his name can be found on a pink granite lion statue discovered at Jebel Barkal. This refers to a granite lion statue bearing the name of Amanislo, a Kushite king who reigned in the 3rd century BC. One of "Amenasro II"'s daughters had a son named "Aspourta" who did not immediately succeed "Amenasro".
Piankhi IV 650–616 BC (34 years) Piyankihi IV (Awtet) 34 years 117 According to Louis J. Morié, "Piankhi IV" was married to "Kenensat", daughter of an Egyptian prince who was descended from the Twenty-second dynasty and princess "Moutiritis", who was a daughter of "Piankhi III" and Amenirdis I. The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list added "Awtet" to this king, a name that appears on some Ethiopian regnal lists.
Aspourta 616–575 BC (41 years) Zaware Nebret Aspurta 41 years 118 According to Morié, "Aspourta" was designated king of Aethiopia and High Priest of Amun by the Orcale of Amun. "Aspourta" was born in Napata and lived there until his death in 575 BC. His wife "Matsenen" (or "Rhodope") was a priestess of Mut and daughter of lady or princess "Nensaou". "Aspourta" and "Matsenen" had a daughter named "Kheb-ha". It is likely that "Aspourta" is the historical Kushite king Aspelta. The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list added "Zaware Nebrat" to his name, which is a name that appears on some pre-1922 Ethiopian regnal lists, usually as the successor of "Awtet", the name given to "Piankhi IV"/"Piyankihi IV" on the 1922 regnal list.
Hor-se-atew I 575–541 BC (34 years) Saifay Harsiatew 12 years 119 "Hor-se-atew I" was born at Napata and waged war against various tribes. Morié believed he was the last of the Napatan kings and was overthrown after a revolt by the "Meroities". The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list added "Saifay" to his name. The name "Saifay" appears on some pre-1922 Ethiopian regnal lists, usually as the successor to "Zaware Nebrat", who is identified with "Aspurta".
Ammonian dynasty (Meroite Branch) — 541 BC to Between 105 and 30 BC
Nastosenen 541–525 BC (16 years) Ramhay Nastossanan 14 years 120 "Nastosenen" was descended from Cepheus, Perseus and Memnon. Morié claimed that following the Achaemenid conquest of Egypt, a daughter of Psamtik III named "Ashen" fled to Aethiopia and became a wife of "Nastosenen" and ancestress of future Aethiopian kings. Louis J. Morié claimed that during this period the Kingdom of Napata was divided into two regions, the "To-kens" in the north and the "Alo" in the south. The "To-kens" region included Kerma, Dongola, Napata, Jebel Barkal, Astaboras and Meroe. The "Alo" region was sometimes considered to begin with Meroe, and included Alodia, Sennar, Soba and modern-day Khartoum. On the southern border of the "Alo" region lived the "Asmakh" people, descendants of the soldiers of Psamtik I. Between the Darfour region, Abyssinia and the Red Sea lived a number of "savage tribes". Morié argued that the loss of Egypt meant that Aethiopia had become isolated, but this did not negatively affect the people, who were perceived to be "marvelous" and "almost divine" beings by outsiders.

During the reign of king "Nastosenen", Cambyses II sent spies to Aethiopia who pretended to be ambassadors bringing gifts. "Nastosenen" was however immediately suspicious and did not believe that Cambyses wanted a peaceful relationship with Aethiopia. He gave the 'ambassadors' a bow to send back to Cambyses and stated that if the Persians were able to draw bows with the same skill as the Aethiopians then he can attack. Cambyses was angry at the response from "Nastosenen" and marched to Aethiopia, but the army was poorly equipped and suffered from famine, with half of the army dying. Because of this, Cambyses turned back to Egypt. According to Morié, the Greeks described "Nastosenen" as athletic and tall.


"Nastosenen" is meant to be the historical Kushite king Nastasen, who actually reigned in the 4th century BC. The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list added the name "Ramhay". The name "Ramhay" appears on some pre-1922 regnal lists as the immediate successor of "Safay", "Zaware Nebrat" and "Awtet", who are all identified with the previous three kings of Morié's narrative.

Houd-as-ew 525–498 BC (27 years) Handu Wuha Abra 11 years 121 According to Louis J. Morié, king "Nastosenen" was succeeded by his brother "Houd-as-ew". During his reign, the Satrap of Egypt, Aryandes went to war with Aethiopia.

The wife of "Houd-as-ew" was called "Ashen" (otherwise known as "Persina" or "Persinaké") and fell pregnant after 10 years of marriage. According to Morié, queen "Ashen" looked at a painting of Andromeda being saved by Perseus during the moment of conception and gave birth nine months later to a girl with blond hair. She feared that her husband would not approve of this and thus she pretended the baby died in childbirth and gave her to "Sisimithrès" or "Se-Mentoura", a member of the divine council, along with a ring, a necklace of precious stone and silk. After 7 years, he gave the girl to "Khariklès" (Charicles), a priest of Apollo at Delphi, who had recently lost a daughter. This priest named the girl "Khariklea" (Chariclea), otherwise known as "Pythias", "Thisbe" or "Leucippe". She was introduced to the sciences, was received as a priestess of Diana and was engaged to "Alkamine", a nephew of "Charicles". At the time of the marriage, a man named "Theagenes", who was a priest of Apollo and head of the sacred embassy of the Ainianians, arrived in Delphi with an Egyptian priest named "Kalasiris" (or "Kha-lashiri"). "Khariklea" fell in love with "Theagenes" at the sacred procession. They both fled with their confidant "Kalasiris" on a Phoenician vessel but were shipwrecked on Zakynthos and were kidnapped by a pirate named "Trakhinos", who was later thrown overboard at the coast of Egypt following a revolt against him because of his desire to keep "Khariklea" for himself. The companions of "Trakhinos" killed each other in a fight over his wealth and "Khariklea" and "Theagenes" were then prisoners of the Egyptian High Priest of Memphis "Thyamis" or "Toumi", who later gave them freedom. However, "Khariklea" and "Theagenes" were soon after taken prisoner by "Mitranes", chief guard of the satrap of Egypt Aryandes, who was at war with Aethiopia at the time. On the way to being taken to "Mitranes", the lovers were then surprised by a group of 800 Ethiopians and 200 Troglodytes who took them to the Aethiopian king.

King "Houd-as-ew" fought against Aryandes and the Persians for control of Philae and the Elephantine and marched onto the battlefield with elephants. He was aided by the Meroeites, the Troglodytae and the Blemmyes and won the battle. "Khariklea" and "Theagenes" were offered as sacrifies to the gods after the victory, but when it was proven that "Khariklea" was of royal origin the practice of human sacrifice was abolished. "Sisimithrès"/"Se-Mentoura" was able to identify her as a princess. "Khariklea", aged 17, then married "Theagenes". On the occasion of the wedding, ambassadors from vassals and neighbouring countries attended. According to Louis J. Morié, the Greek language was spoken at the court of Meroe during this king's reign.

The chronological placement of "Houd-as-ew" inspired the placement of king "Handu" after Saifay Harsiatew and Ramhay Nastossanan on the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list. A king named "Handu" appears on at least one Ethiopian manuscript as a direct successor to "Awetet", "Zawari Nebret", "Safay" and "Ramhay", who are all combined with the previous four kings of Morié's narrative.
Beroua-em-heb 498 BC–? "Houd-as-ew" was succeeded by his nephew "Beroua-em-heb".
Taaaken c. 450 BC Elalion Taake 10 years 129 "Beroua-em-heb" was succeeded by "Theagenes" in c. 450 BC, the priest that princess "Khariklea" had married. "Theagenes" ruled under the name of "Taaaken" for an unknown number of years with "Khariklea" as his queen consort. They had a son named "Syros" (possibly after the Greek island of the same name), who was otherwise known as "As-hour" or "As-har" and ruled as king after the death of his father. The name "Taaaken" may be taken from the real-life Kushite king Talakhamani. The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list combines "Taaaken" with a king named "Ilalyos" or "Elalyon", who appears on some pre-1922 Ethiopian regnal lists.
Amenou-khroud Between c. 450 BC and c. 340 BC
Kantakeh II (Queen) c. 340–320 BC (20 years) Nikawla Kandake II 10 years 135 Louis J. Morié claimed this queen offered her hand in marriage to Alexander the Great soon after he conquered Egypt. The Aethiopians supposedly recognized him as their sovereign though he never visited Aethiopia and died in 323 BC before he had the chance. "Kantakeh II" is placed before "Atserk-Amen III" in Morié's narrative, though the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list moved her placement further down the regnal order due to the dating used on this list and possibly also due to the desire of the author of the 1922 list to ensure this queen's reign aligns roughly with the reign of Alexander.
Atserk-Amen III c. 300–250 BC (50 years) Atserk Amen III 10 years 130 According to Morié, it was during this king's reign that the north-east part of Aethiopia fell under the rule of the Egyptian pharaoh Ptolemy II. The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list also called this king "Atserk Amen III", though this creates some confusion with numbering as the author of this list chose to call the first two kings of this name in Morié's narrative by the name of "Sera" instead.
Erk-Amen I c. 250–230 BC (20 years) Arkamen 10 years 138 According to Morié, the priesthood in Aethiopia was so powerful from c. 1110 to 240 BC that they could order the death of the king. However, when a messenger was sent to "Erk-Amen I" to inform him of his death, he marched with his army (which included Greek mercenaries) to Arada where the temple of Gold was located at an almost inaccessible height and slaughtered the priests. This event took place in c. 240 BC and put an end to sacerdotal power. "Erk-Amen I" instituted a new cult and the monarchy once again became hereditary instead of elective. "Erk-Amen I" was also interested in Greek philosophy and literature.

This story is based on the account written by Diodorus Siculus of a Kushite king named Ergamenes who resented the power of the priests and wished to have absolute power like his neighbour Ptolemy II and was instructed in Greek philosophy. It is possible that Ergamenes was the Kushite king Arakamani.

Atserk-Amen IV c. 230–215 BC (15 years) Atserk Amen IV 10 years 131 According to Morié, Ptolemy IV attempted to reclaim territory in Aethiopia that had been lost before his reign. However, he was unable to overcome resistance by "Atserk-Amen IV" and his expansion was limited to Qasr Ibrim. "Atserk-Amen IV" worked on the temples of Dakka and Debod. In reality, the Temple of Dakka was built in collaboration between Ptolemy IV and Arqamani, while the Temple of Debod was built by Adikhalamani, though later expanded by the Ptolemaic pharaohs of Egypt.
Arou-Amen c. 215–204 BC (9 years) Awtet Aruwara 10 years 139 Morié claimed that the reign of "Arou-Amen" was peaceful.

A king named "Awtet" does appear on pre-1922 Ethiopian regnal lists as the successor of "Ba'os" or "Basyo". The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list combines "Awtet" with Morié's "Arou-Amen" and places the king after "Bassyo", though not as the direct successor.
Ankh-em-akhouti c. 204–184 BC (20 years)
Hor-em-akhouti c. 184 BC
Hor-se-atew II Between 105 and 30 BC
The Blemmyes dynasty — From between 105 and 30 BC to 548 AD
Kantakeh III (Queen) c. 30–20 BC (10 years) Akawsis Kandake III (Queen) 10 years 137 According to Louis J. Morié, "Kantakeh III" was the Kandake queen who fought against Gaius Petronius during his campaign into Nubia. Morié stated that Petronius was able to capture Napata in 24 BC and in response "Kantakeh III" abandoned the former capital and rebuilt Meroe. She attempted to make peace proposals with Petronius but he refused. However, Petronius decided to move back to Egypt after his troops made it as far as Qasr Ibrim because he was unfamiliar with the region beyond this point. Queen "Kantakeh III" then attempted to recapture Qasr Ibrim. In response, Petronius chose to enter negotiations with the queen. In c. 20 BC, an Aethiopian embassy was sent to Augustus. He granted peace on the condition that Lower Nubia was ceded to the Roman Empire. The queen was also exempt from the tribute that was imposed on her by Petronius previously. She later founded a new capital named "New Napata", but her favourite residence was the Gash-Barka Region in modern-day Eritrea.

This queen's reign dates in Morié's narrative align comfortably with the historical reign of Amanirenas, who was most likely the Kandake queen who fought against the Romans. The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list however moves the reign of "Kandake III" nearly three centuries earlier and thus she can no longer be considered to the Kandake who fought against the Romans.
Kantakeh IV (Queen) c. 10 BC Nikosis Kandake IV (Queen) 10 years 144 "Kantakeh IV" was succeeded by her son "Erk-Amen II".
Erk-Amen II c. 20–30 AD (10 years) Ramhay Arkamen II 10 years 145
Raoura (Queen) c. 30–35 AD (5 years)
Cleopatra (Queen) c. 35–40 AD (5 years)
Hakaptah c. 40–50 AD (10 years) Akaptah Tsenfa Arad 8 years 167 In Louis J. Morié's narrative, it was during the reign of king "Hakaptah" that Matthew the Apostle came to Aethiopia and converted the king's daughter, Ephigenia, to Christianity. In the original story of Matthew the Apostle, the king was named "Egippus".

King "Hakaptah"/"Egippus" was succeeded by his brother "Hor-em-tekhou", known as "Hirtacus" in the original story. In Morié's narrative, "Hor-em-tekhou" desired to marry Ephigenia but Matthew told her to persevere and avoid marriage. "Hor-em-tekhou" was angered by this and had Matthew killed at the foot of the altar. This retelling of the events largely stays true to the original narrative. According to Morié, "Hor-em-tekhou" abandoned Christianity after this and turned back to the cult of Isis. During his reign, "Hor-em-tekhou" helped Roman envoys in their search to find the source of the Nile but they were ultimately unable to do this.

The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list identifies "Hakaptah" with a king named "Tsenfa Arad" who appears on some pre-1922 Ethiopian regnal lists. The 1922 regnal list also includes a statement that king Akaptah Tsenfa Arad was baptised by Matthew the Apostle, which is clearly inspired by Morié's book.

Hor-em-tekhou c. 50–60 AD (10 years) Horemtaku 2 years 168
Kandake V (Queen) c. 60–80 AD (20 years) Garsemot Kandake VI (Queen) 10 years 169 In contrast to the claims made by the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list, Morié did not believe this queen was the Kandake mentioned in the story of the Ethiopian eunuch who was baptised by Philip the Evangelist, and instead believed this referred to a different queen who ruled Abyssinia rather than Nubia, which was still non-Christian by the 6th century.
Erk-Amen III c. 80 AD "Kantakeh V" was succeeded by her son "Erk-Amen III".
Hor-nekht-atew c. 192–229 AD (37 years) Feliya Hernekhit 15 years 146 According to Louis J. Morié, "Hor-nekht-atew" took advantage of the unrest that followed the death of Commodus to conquer Upper Egypt. He was apparently recognized by Pescennius Niger after his rule was proclaimed at Thebes. He helped Pescennius Niger to usurp the Roman throne, but both were defeated by Septimius Severus in 195. "Hor-nekht-atew" was married to "Tsetisi", a daughter of an Aethiopian official, who gave birth to several sons. Their eldest son was named "Pasan". "Hor-nekht-atew" had a second wife named "Moutoeri", with whom he had a son named "Ouikera". "Hor-nekht-atew" disinherited his eldest son "Pasan" in favour of passing the thron to "Ouikera", leading to infighting that affected the last years of his reign.

The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list renamed "Hor-nekht-atew" as "Hernekhit" and identified him with "Falaya" or "Filya", a king who appears on pre-20th century Ethiopian regnal lists.
Ouikera c. 229–250 AD (11 years) Hende Awkerara 20 years 147 King "Hor-nekht-atew" was succeeded by his son "Ouikera" instead of his elder son "Pasan". The first 15 to 20 years of "Ouikera"'s reign were filled with infighting against his elder brother "Pasan". "Ouikera" had two sons, of whom the eldest, named "Psheraan", succeeded him as king.
Psheraan c. 250–268 AD (18 years) Agabu Baseheran 10 years 148 King "Psheraan" succeeded his father "Hor-nekht-atew" according to Morié's narrative. "Psheraan" took power over Philae and the Elephantine and had himself declared king at Thebes in 268, attempting to take advantage of the state that the Roman Empire at this time. In c. 273 this king or his successor supported the Roman usurper Firmus in his bid to claim the title of emperor. However, Aurelian was able to defeat the Aethiopians and their allies the Axumites, who had previously supported Zenobia. After Aurelian's death in 275, the Aethiopians again invaded Egypt, having been called by the inhabitants of Ptolemais, which was seized alongside Coptos. The Aethiopians ruled the Theban area for 4 years, from 276 to 280, until they were driven out by Probus.

The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list identified this king with "Bahas", a king whose name appears on some pre-1922 Ethiopian regnal lists.

Khouwoumenou c. 300 AD Sulay Kawawmenun 20 years 149 According to Morié's narrative, there is apparently little known about "Khouwoumenou" except that he had several children. The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list identified this king with "Kawida" or "Kawuda", who appears on pre-1922 Ethiopian regnal lists.
Tereremen c. 373–381 AD (8 years) Messelme Kerarmer 8 years 150 Louis J. Morié referred to a number of cities in Sudan, including one named "Mesalamieh" or "Messalanieh".
Psentes Between 450 and 530 AD Nagey Bsente 10 years 151
Berou-Kanower Between 450 and 530 AD Etbenukawer 10 years 152
As-a-ran After 530 AD
Ab-ra-amen After 530 AD Safelya Abramen 20 years 153 "Ab-ra-men" had a wife named "Nekarou".

Comparison between Louis J. Morié's Abyssinian regnal list and the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list

In many cases, Morié follows the regnal order and reign lengths found on various Ethiopian regnal lists recorded before the 20th century. Morié's list can be compared with those included in the Wikipedia article for Regnal lists of Ethiopia.

Louis J. Morié 1922 regnal list Additional information
Name/Dynasty Reign dates and length Ref. Name Reign length Numbered Position
The First Dynasties5802–1776 BC Tribe of Kam — 2713–1985 BC
Kush c. 5802 BC–? Kout 50 years 23 Louis J. Morié claimed that "Habesch I" was a son of the Biblical Cush and it was from his name that the word "Abyssinia" originates from. He was then followed by "Habesch II", son of Canaan, who brought a Canaanite colony to Aethiopia from Palestine.
Habesch I Habassi 40 years 24
Habesch II
The Arwe Dynasty1776–1376 BC
Arwe I 1776 BC–? Arwe is not named on the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list except as part of the Epithet "Zaka Laarwe" used for Angabo I.
Arwe II
Arwe III c. 1400 BC
The Angaban Dynasty1376–955 BC Ag'azyan Dynasty — 1985–982 BC On the 1922 Ethiopian regnal list, 426 years elapse between the accession of king Angabo I and the death of queen Makeda. By comparison, Louis J. Morié claimed that the "Angaban dynasty" reigned for 421 years.
Za Baesi Angabo I 1376 BC–? Angabo I (Zaka Laarwe) 50 years 74 While native Ethiopian tradition gives Angabo a reign of 200 years, Morié instead believed this figure refers to the gap between the beginning of Angabo's reign and the accession of "Za-Gedur I".
Za Gedour I 1176 BC–? Zagdur I 40 years 77 Morié believed this king resided at "Nuch". While native Ethiopian tradition gives "Za-Gedur" a reign of 100 years, Morié instead believed this figure refers to the gap between the beginning of "Za-Gedur"'s reign and the accession of "Za-Sebadho".
Za Sebadho 1076–1026 BC (50 years) Akate (Za Sagado) 20 years 80 Morié believed this king resided at "Sado". According to Morié, this king had only one daughter with his wife "Geres". The daughter's name was "Ismenie-Kallipyge" and the throne passed to his son-in-law "Za-Qaouasya".
Za Qaouasya 1026–1005 BC (21 years) Tawasaya Dews 13 years 97 Morié believed this king was the first to make Axum his capital. Morié also believed this king reigned for 20 years and not for only 1 year as native Ethiopian sources claim. The king died at the age of 75. He had a son named "Nour-al-Rouz", who was born in 1021 BC but was burned alive after his nurse accidentally dropped him into a fire. "Za-Qaouasya" was also father of "Makeda", the queen who would succeed him to the throne. "Za-Qaouasya"'s minister, "Mouezin", usurped the throne while he was on an expedition. "Za-Qaouasya"'s wife "Ismenie-Kallipyge" was also called "Scharistany", a name which inspired the Persian word "Shahristan".
Za Makeda (Queen) 1005–955 BC (50 years) Makeda (Queen) 31 years 98 According to Louis J. Morié, this queen was born in 1020 BC. She was the daughter of king "Za-Qaouasya" and queen "Ismenie". Morié stated she ascended the throne at the age of 15, one year before Solomon began his reign. Morié believed that the name "Queen of Sheba" came from the title "Queen of the South" or "Neghect-Hasabo", which was given to her by Abyssinian historians. He also believed that "Saba" was a corruption of "Hasabo". Additionally, Morié stated that the name given to her, "Candance", was simply an alteration of the Nubian "Kandake" title, which was never used in Abyssinia. He believed that these conflations led to Makeda being confused with "Bilqis", daughter of Arabian king "El-Hodad" or "Had-Had", who reigned from 1050 to 1030 BC.

Morié then relates the traditional story of Makeda's meeting with Solomon, as told in the Kebra Nagast. One of Solomon's generals, named "Boulboul", visited the land ruled by Makeda and gave him a description of her beauty, which made Solomon wish to send an embassy to her and ask her to come to Jerusalem. She initially refused to go and instead sent 1,000 slaves, along with jewels, musk and amber. Solomon refused these gifts and warned the ambassador that he would take his army to humiliate the lords that had advised the queen. In response, Makeda decided to meet Solomon in the 25th year of her reign, bringing with her gold, perfume, spices and precious stones. Several months later, Makeda returned to her kingdom with the high priest Azariah and 12,000 Jews (1,000 from each tribe). She gave birth to Menelik I on her way home. Makeda sent Menelik to Jerusalem as an adult to be educated there. He spent several years there before his father had him consecrated and anointed king of Abyssinia in the temple of Jerusalem under the name of David or Daoud.

Makeda is credited with the law prescribing circumcision for boys and banning women from reigning over Abyssinia. She was buried in Axum. Morié claimed that her name influenced the name of the "Makedos" tribe in southern Nubia. The kings of Kaffa also claimed descent from Solomon and Makeda.
The Solomonic dynasty Dynasty of Menelik I (Before the birth of Christ)982 BC–9 AD
The Za Kings – 955 BC–162 AD
Menelik I 955–930 or 926 BC (25 or 29 years) Menelik I 25 years 99 According to Louis J. Morié, Menelik I ascended the throne at the age of 26. During his reign, the people of Aethiopia converted to Judaism and the government was modelled on that of Judea. Azariah wrote a code of law that became the institutions of the kingdom of Ethiopia. It was also during his reign that several factions of Israelite tribes emigrated to Abyssinia during the revolts against Rehoboam. They settled in Damot under the name of Gafat and it is from them that the Falasha descend from. Menelik was buried in a Jewish temple in Axum, which has since been converted to a Catholic church. While Judaism became the official religion under Menelik, the ancient priests who followed the old religion had many followers and undermined Judaism.
Tomai or Za Handadyo 930–929 or 926–925 BC (1 year) Hanyon and Sera I (Tomai) 1 year / 26 years 100 and 101 According to Louis J. Morié, Menelik was succeeded by his son, known as either "Tomai" or "Za Handadyo", who reigned for only one year. This is based on information found on native Ethiopian regnal lists, some of which state Menelik's successor was king "Hendedya" or "Handadyu", who reigned for either 1 or 8 years, while others claim it was king "Tomai" or "Tomas", who reigned for 15 years according to one list. Because no known Ethiopian king before 1922 includes both names, Morié decided to identify them as the same person and chose to believe the short 1-year reign length. The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list by comparison names both kings separately.
Za Gedur or Barakid 929–926 or 925–922 BC (3 years) Amen Hotep Zagdur 31 years 102 According to Morié, king "Tomai"/"Za Handadyo" was succeeded by his son or brother "Za-Gedur II", otherwise known as "Barakid".
'Aouda-'Amat 926–915 or 922–911 BC (11 years) Aksumay Ramissu 20 years 103 The name "Aouda-Amat" refers to king "Aweda" who appears on some pre-1922 Ethiopian regnal lists as the successor of "Handadyo" and reigned for 11 years according to these lists. The 1922 Ethiopian regnal list does not include a king named "Aweda", but instead uses the name "Aksumay" that appears on some regnal lists as the successor to "Zagdur".
Za-Aousanya I 915–912 or 911–908 BC (3 years) Awseyo Sera II 38 years 104
Za Tahaouasya 912–881 or 908–877 BC (31 years) Tawasya II 21 years 105
Abreham I 881 or 877–c. 850 BC (4 to 31 years) Abralyus Wiyankihi II 32 years 106
Tazena I After c. 850 BC
Tazena II or Bazen I
Qualiza
Ouarada-Tsahai Aksumay Warada Tsahay 23 years 107 According to Louis J. Morié, about a century after the death of Menelik I, during the reign of king "Ouarada-Tsahai", the ancient cult was reinstated.
Handadyo II Kashta Hanyon 13 years 108
Nicauta Kandake I (Queen) 10 years 110 Louis J. Morié used an "Nicanta" as an alternate name for the Queen of Sheba/Makeda. Regnal lists from Heruy Wolde Selassie and Aleka Taye used "Nikanta" for the name of this queen instead of "Nicauta".
Ouarada-Negouc After c. 850 BC Tsawi Terhak Warada Nagash 49 years 111
Aousanya II or Tazena III Erda Amen Awseya 6 years 112
Ela-Syon or Tazena IV or Bazen II Elalion Taake 10 years 129 Morié listed "Elalyon" as one of the alternative names for this king. He additionally claimed that this king restored Judaism to Aethiopia.
Toma-Seyon or Germa Asfar I ?–c. 172 BC Tomadyon Piyankihi III and Metwa Germa Asfar 12 years / 9 years 115 and 172 According to Morié, there is a gap between c. 850 BC and c. 180 BC where little information is known. King "Toma-Syon I" or "Germa Asfare I" is named as the next known king after "Ela-Syon".
Syon-Geza I or Fasil I Reigned for one day or half a day Gasiyo Eskikatir 113 Morié specified this king reigned for one day or half a day. Ethiopian regnal lists sometimes mention a king called "Gasyo" who reigned half a day.
Za Aoutet I or Leb-Dakhare 171–162 BC (8 years and 4 months) Nuatmeawn and Piyankihi IV (Awtet) 4 years / 34 years 114 and 117 Morié listed "Za-Maoute" as an alternate name for this king.
Zarea-Nebrat or Za-Bahas or Enza-Yeqre 162–152 BC (9 years) Zaware Nebrat Aspurta and Agabu Baseheran 41 years / 10 years 118 and 148 Morié believed this king may have been a usurper "of the race of the Azarias" or claimed descent through his mother because of his name, which apparently means "seed of the High Priest".
Senfai or Qaouda 152–149 BC (3 years) Saifay Harsiataw and Sulay Kawawmenun 12 years / 20 years 119 and 149
Ramhai or Qanaz or Negouc-Area 149–138 BC (11 years) Ramhay Nastossanan and Kanaz Psmis 14 years / 13 years 120 and 126
Handadyo III 138–128 BC (10 years) Handu Wuha Abra 11 years 121
Za-Ouasan I or Hezba Arad c. 128–126 BC (2 years)
Za-Handadyo IV or Bahr-Ared c. 126–123 BC (3 years)
Nikawla Kandake II (Queen) 10 years 135 Louis J. Morié used "Nicaula" as an alternate name for the Queen of Sheba/Makeda.
Akawsis Kandake III (Queen) 10 years 137 Louis J. Morié used "Nicausis" as an alternate name for Queen of Sheba/Makeda.
Maekala-Ouedem c. 123–115 BC (8 years) Kolas (Koletro) 10 years 140 Morié lists "Kalas" as an alternate name for this king.
Za-Sendo I c. 115–97 BC (18 years) Stiyo 14 years 142 Morié lists "Satyo" as an alternate name for this king.
Nikosis Kandake IV (Queen) 10 years 144 Louis J. Morié used "Nicausis" as an alternate name for Queen of Sheba/Makeda.
Za Feleka c. 97–70 BC (27 years) Feliya Hernekhit 15 years 146
Agleboul 70–67 BC (3 years) Aglbul 8 years 157
Baouaoual or Za Aousanya III 67–66 BC (1 year) Bawawl and Awsena (Queen) 10 years 158 and 155 Both "Bawawel" and "Awsina" appears on different Ethiopian regnal lists as the successor to "Agbul"/"Aglebel".
Za Baoua-Area or Bahr-Ouedem 66–37 BC (29 years) Barawas 10 years 159
Za-Masih I 37–36 BC (1 year) Amoy Mahasse 5 years 161
Nicotnis Kandake V (Queen) 10 years 162 Louis J. Morié used "Nitocris" as an alternate name for the Queen of Sheba/Makeda.
Nalke Between 36 and 8 BC Nalke 5 years 163
Za-Beesi-Bazen III 8 BC–9 AD (17 years) Bazen 17 years 165 This king appears on all Ethiopian regnal lists and always begins his reign 8 years before the birth of Jesus Christ. Morié believed the name of this king inspired the name of the 'Bazen' people who lived in the Kassala region of modern-day Sudan.
Dynasty of Menelik I (After the birth of Christ) — 9–306
Senfa-Ared I or Senfa-Asged or Za-Sendo II 9–35 (26 years) Sartu Tsenfa Asagad 21 years 166 This king apparently had a bad reputation, though Morié believed this may actually refer to "Za-Sendo I"/"Stiyo".
Za-Laeka 35–45 (10 years)
Garsemot Kandake VI (Queen) 10 years 169 Morié claimed that around 70 AD, Christianity was introduced to Abyssinia, which was ruled by a queen regent named Judith, who was confused by later writers to be the queen Kandake of Meroë. A Jewish Ethiopian eunuch named "Juda", who was superintendant of the royal treasury, was baptized by Philip the Evangelist after having visited Jerusalem, Judea, India and Ceylon. The queen then embraced Catholicism and build the first church of Axum, named Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion. However, the Ethiopian people reverted to their old beliefs after her death.
Za-Masih II 45–51 (6 years) Mesenh Germasir 7 years 171
Za-Sendo III 51–60 (9 years) Metwa Germa Asfar 9 years 172 Morié lists "Za-Setoua" as an alternate name for this king.
Bahr-Asged I or Bahr-Sagad I or Za-Adgala or Adgaba 60–70 (10 years and 7 months or 10 years and 10 months) Adgale II 10 years and 6 months 173
Germa-Sor or Za-Agbea 70 (6 or 26 months) Agba 6 months 174
Germa-Asfare II or Bahr-Sor or Za-Masih III 70–74 (4, 6 or 7 years) Metwa Germa Asfar 9 years 172
Za Hailou-Syon I or Serad 74–87 (13 years) Hakabe Nasohi Tseyon, Serada and Hakli Sergway 6 years / 16 years / 12 years 177, 175 and 178 Morié identifies this king with another name, "Hakli", that appears on some regnal lists and believed this king to be Zoskales.

According to Morié, this king was a conqueror, scholar and was fluent in the Greek language. He was the first king to take the title of "Philhellen" or "Beesi-Halen" and it was during his reign that the Ancient Greek religion began to have followers in Abyssinia, where it eventually became the official cult. However, was also greedy and his legacy was tarnished by his debauchery.

Za-Demabe 87–97 (10 years) Dedme Zaray 10 years 179
Za-Aoutet II 97–99 (2 years) Awtet 2 years 180
Za-Aouda I 99–129 (30 years) Awadu Jan Asagad 30 years 182 Morié believed this was the king whose conquests was recorded on the Monumentum Adulitanum inscription. He conquered Tigray, Samien, Lasta, Upper Nubia, as well as parts of the Gallas, the Danakil Desert and the Arabian coast.
Za-Zagen and Rema 129–133 (4 or 8 years) Zagun Tsion Hegez and Rema Tsion Geza 5 years / 3 years 183 and 184
Za-Hafala 133–134 (1 year) Gafale Seb Asagad 1 year 186
Za-Beesi-Saroue-Syon (4 years) Tsegay Beze Wark 4 years 187
Zareai or Zarea-Syon or Za-Ela-Asguagua I 134–141 (7 years) Dedme Zaray and Agduba Asgwegwe 10 years / 8 years 179 and 189
Bagam Jan or Ela-Arka 141–162 (21 years) Alaly Bagamay 7 years 181
Sabea Asged I or Jan Asged I or Za-Beesi Ouasan II 162 (6 months or 1 year) Awadu Jan Asagad 30 years 182 Brother of Zareai.
Syon-Geza II or Za-Ouakana 162 (1, 2 or 20 days or 2 months) Wakana (Queen) 2 days 191
Za-Maoual or Za-Hadaous 162 (1 or 4 months) Hadawz 4 months 192 Morié called this king the "last prince of the Za branch".
Genha or Ela-Sagal — (3 years) Ailassan Sagal 3 years 193 Morié believes this king is the same as another called "Moal Genba" and thus does not count his reign length in his overall chronology.
The El or Ela branch – 162–328 According to Morié, the "El" branch descended from a Syrian colony called the "Syri" who were left on the Eritrean coast by Alexander the Great. They later established a colony in Abyssinia, and one of their chiefs, possibly Ela-Asfeha I, married a princess of the Solomonic line and claimed legitimacy. The change of epithet from "Za" to "El" indicates a dynastic change.
Ela-Asfeha I or El-Asfeh 162—176 (14 years) Asfehi Asfeha 14 years 194
Za-Gedour III or Ela-Tzegab 176—199 (23 years) Atsgaba Seifa Arad 6 years 195
Senfa Ared II or Ela-Samera 199—202 (3 years)
El Aiba or Ela Aiba 202—218 (16 years) Ayba 17 years 196
Ela-Eskender I or Sara-Diu 218—254 (36 or 37 years)
Ela-Sehma or Tesama I 254—263 (9 years) Tsaham Laknigua 9 years 197 Son of Ela-Eskender.
El Ouasan I or Ela-Ouasan I 263—276 (13 years) Brother of Ela-Sehma.
El Aiga or Ela-Aiga 276—294 (18 years)
Ela-Ameda I or Tazena V 294—325 (30 years and 8 months) Tazer 10 years 199 Grandfather or uncle of Abreha and Atsbeha.
Ela-Ahiaoua, Bakhas, Bakhasa or Ela-Asguagua II 325—328 (3 years) Ahywa Sofya (Queen) 7 years 200 Son or brother of Ela-Ameda I and father of Abreha and Atsbeha. The 1922 regnal lists however claims this ruler was instead female and was Sofya of Axum.
From the Christianisation of Ethiopia until the usurpation of the Falashas328–937 Dynasty of Menelik I (Christian Sovereigns) — 306–493 Morié dated the Christianisation of Ethiopia to 341.
El-Abreha I (Sole rule) 328—343 (15 years) Abreha and Atsbeha 38 years 201 Alternate names for Abreha I: El-Ouasan II, Tazena VI, Ethiopis and Ezana.
El-Abreha I and Ela-Asbeha I (Joint rule) 343—356 (13 years) Alternate name for Atsbeha I: Saizana.
El-Abreha II, Ela-Asfeha-Masqal and Ela-Shahl I (Asael I) (Joint rule) 356—370 (14 years) Asfeh Dalz 7 years 202 Three sons of Abreha I. They divided each day into three parts where they would each reign in turn. Ela-Asfeha-Masqal died in either 359 or 363, after a reign of 3 or 7 years. El-Abreha II died in 368 after a reign of 12 years. Ela-Shahl I reigned alone for 2 further years until his death in 370.
Sahle I 14 years 203
Arfed Gebra Maskal 4 years 204
Ela-Addana I — (14 years) Adhana I (Queen) 5 years 205 Morié believed this king was identical to one of the preceding kings who jointly reigned for 14 years.
Ela-Retana 370—371 (1 year) Riti 1 year 206
Ela-Asfeha II or Asged I – (1 year) Asfeh II 1 year 207 Son of Ela-Asfeha-Masqal. Morié believed this king was identical to Ela-Retana.
Ela-Asbeha II 371—376 (5 years) Atsbeha II 5 years 208 Son of Ela-Asfeha II.
Ela-Ameda II 376—392 (16 years) Amey I 15 years 209 Second son of Ela-Asfeha II.
Ela-Abreha III 392 (2 or 6 months) Abreha II 7 months 210
Ela-Shahl II Ilassahl 2 months 211 Morié believed this king was identical to Ela-Abreha III.
Ela-Gobaz I 392–394 (2 years) Elagabaz I 2 years 212 Ela-Shahl II apparently had a reputation for being vain and proud and was dethroned by one of his vassals, Ela-Gobaz, who was the son of a district chief and his wife Farach, a daughter of a provincial governor. Ela-Gobaz had gained favour at the royal court and knew how to maintain himself in the face of revolts from chiefs placed under his orders. He fell in love with the king's only daughter Admas and asked for her hand in marriage, but the king was outraged and ordered Ela-Gobaz's execution. Ela-Gobaz rose up against the king as head of an army of a thousand soldiers, forced his way into the palace and imprisoned Ela-Shahl II, who died shortly afterwards. While Admas initially escaped, she was caught and forced to marry Ela-Gobaz. Ela-Gobaz conquered a neighbouring country ruled by a pagan queen named Lab, who was famous for her beauty, crimes and disorder. He married this queen and allowed her to govern the kingdom. However, he was later overthrown by Admas and her brother Ela-Shahl III. Ela-Gobaz's sister Ababa-Esat and their five cousins were sold as slaves to Yazdegerd I, ruler of the Sasanian Empire. Morié claimed that Abab-Esat was the mother of Shapur IV, although in reality this was Shushandukht.
Ela-Shahl III 394–395 (1 year) Suhal 4 years 213 Son of Ela-Shahl II. Ela-Shahl III and his sister Admas overthrew Ela-Gobaz I, who was later put to death.
Ela-Asbeha III 395–398 (3 years)
Ela-Abreha IV and Ela-Addana II (Joint rule) 398–414 (16 years) Abreha III and Adhana II (Queen) 10 years / 6 years 214 and 215
Ela-Sehma or Tesama II 414–442 (28 years) Tsaham I 2 years 217
Ela-Ameda III 442–454 (12 years) Amey II 1 year 218
Ela-Shahl IV (Asael IV) or Lalibala I 454–456 (2 years) Sahle Ahzob 2 years 219
Ela-Sabea – (2 years) Tsebah Mahana Kristos 3 years 220 Morié believed this king was the same person as Ela-Shahl IV.
Ela-Shema or Tesama III 456–471 (15 years) Tsaham II 2 years 221
Ela-Gobaz II – (21 years) Elagabaz II 6 years 222 Morié believed this king was the same person as Angabo II.
Angabo II and Leui (Levi) (Joint rule) 471–475 (4 years) Agabo and Lewi 1 year / 2 years 223 and 224
Ela-Ameda IV 475–486 (9 years) Alameda 8 years 229 According to Morié, it was during the reign of this king the Nine Saints came to Ethiopia.
Yaqob I (Jacob I) and Daouit II (David II) (Joint rule) 486–489 (3 years) Ameda III and Armah Dawit 3 years / 14 years 225 and 226
Armakh I 489–503 (14 years) Armah Dawit 14 years 226
Tazena VII 503–505 (2 years) Pazena Ezana 7 years 230 Son of Ela-Ameda IV. Morié claimed this king defeated the Nuba peoples in the Takaze region, a reference to the Ezana Stone.
Aroue V, Yaqob II or Za-Sendo IV 505–514 (9 years) A usurper who was known to use cruelty and terror to rule. He was ambushed and killed by Elesbaan.
Dynasty of Atse (Emperor) Kaleb until Gedajan — 493—920
Ela-Asbeha IV (Saint Elesbaan) (First Emperor) 514–542 (28 years) Kaleb 30 years 231 Also known as Quastantinos I and Daouit III. He abdicated from the throne in 542 and retired to a monastery, where he lived for another 12 years until he died of smallpox at the age of 70. He was the first Abyssinian king to use the title of "Atse" or Emperor.
Beta-Israel 542–c. 545 (3 years) Za Israel 1 month 232 Eldest son of Kaleb and king of Adwa during his father's reign. Morié believed it was this king who made peace with Abraha and formally recognised him as king of Himyar.
Gabra-Masqal I or Ela-Asbeha V c. 545–c. 580 (35 years) Gabra Maskal 14 years 233 Second son of Kaleb/Elesbaan. Built the Abba Garima Monastery in 560.
Quastantinos II c. 580–c.615 (c. 35 years in total) Kostantinos 28 years 234 Eldest son of Gabra-Masqal I.<
Ouasan-Sagad I, Asged II or Bazagar Wasan Sagad 15 years 235 Second son of Gabra-Masqal I or possibly son of Quastantinos II. Exiled to Arabia.
Ela-Asfeha III Eldest son of Ouasan-Sagad I.
Armakh II or Armah c. 615–645 (30 years) Armah 5 years 252 Second son of Ouasan-Sagad I. Contemporary of Prophet Muhammad and ruler of Abyssinia during the First Hijra.
Jan-Asfeha 7th century Son of Armakh II and allegedly converted to Islam, though actually remained Christian.
Jan-Asged II
Fekra-Sena Fere Sanay 23 years 236 Morié listed "Fre-Sennai" as an alternate for this king.
Andryas I or Andre I Advenz 20 years 237 Morié listed "Aderaz" as an alternate for this king.
Aizour I This king was deceived by a woman named Sebat, who overthrew him and became queen. However, she only ruled for a short time and was driven out by Hailou-Ouedem. An invastion of locusts took place during Aizour's reign. Aizour's son suffered from an eye disease and feared blindness, and Aizour claimed he would share the throne and his wealth with whoever could cure his son. A man named Desta succeeded in curing the king's son, married the eldest daughter of the king and was appointed co-regent with the king. The king's son's illness however relapsed after his father and Desta were both dead.
Hailou-Ouedem or Maedai Akala Wedem 8 years 238 Morié listed "Akala-Ouedem" as an alternate name for this king. This king became blind and was nicknamed "Aama" ("The Blind"), given by Arab writers.
Galaoudeouos I or Germa-Asfare III 8th century Germa Asfar 15 years 239
Zergaz I Zergaz 10 years 240
Degna-Mikael I, Bahr-Hailou or Dalez Dagena Mikael 26 years 241
Goum Gum 24 years 243
Asguamgoum Asguagum 5 years 244
Ela-Ouedem Latem 16 years 245 Morié lists "Letem" as an alternate name for this king.
Del-Ouedem Talatam 21 years 246 Morié lists "Talatem" as an alternate name for this king.
'Oda-Sasa, 'Oda-Guch or El-Abreha VI Gadagosh 13 years 247
Aizour II or Gefa Aizar Eskikatir Half a day 248 Reigned for half a day and suffocated when surrounded by many people. Because of this, a barrier was thereafter placed before the emperor.
Addi-Ouedem or Badgeza Dedem 5 years 249 Morié listed "Dedem" as an alternate name for this king.
Zergaz II
Oualda-Ouedem or Madmen Wededem 10 years 250 Morié listed "Ouededem" as an alternate name for this king.
Ouedem-Asfare I ?—c. 805 Wudme Asfare 30 years 251 Lived for 150 years. Governed as a tyrant and was assassinated by a Muslim named Simbad or Sindbad, who crushed his head with a large stone while he slept after getting drunk.
Armakh III c. 830 Armah II 5 years 252 During this king's reign, Ethiopia suffered from plague, famine and war. Pope Jacob of Alexandria ordained Abuna Yohannes as the head of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church during this king's reign, but he was forced to go back to Egypt.
Yohannes I c. 770 Morié believed that the legendary Prester John ruled between the reigns of Germa-Safar and Armakh III (8th century to c. 830) but was not certain which monarch he could be identified with.
Hazba After 830
Arni
Degna-Jan Degennajan 19 years 253
Geda-Jan c. 923 Gedajan 1 year 254 Pope Cosmas III of Alexandria was contemporary with this king according to Morié. Abuna Peter of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church was forced into exile because, accoring to Morié, he was free to choose the king's successor and chose the younger son Del Naad. The older son Anbase Wedem had the Abuna expelled as a result.
Anbasa-Ouedem 924—925 (1 year) Anbase Wedem 20 years 256 A usurper who was deposed by Dil Na'od.
Del-Naad 925—937 (12 years) Del Naad 10 years 257 An epidemic swept across Abyssinia during his reign. A revolution took place in 937, caused by insurrection by the Falashas and Agaw people. Del-Naad was still a child and fled to Shewa after Gudit took power. He continued to rule in Shewa, with Entoto as its capital, until his death, which took place after 980.
The Jewish Falasha dynasty (937—977)
Yodit I 937—977 (40 years) Gudit 40 years 255 Daughter of Gideon II of the Kingdom of Simien, who had separated from the Ethiopian empire during the reign of Abreha I. Took power after killing 400 princes of the Axumite royal family at Debre Damo. Moved the capital to Lasta after destroying Axum.
Yodit II 977 (few months) Daughter of Yodit I. Also known as "Terda-Gabez".
The Christian Dynasty of the Zagwe (977—1331) Sovereigns issued from Zagwe (920—1253) Morié stated the Zagwe dynasty originated from Lasta and were originally Jews who converted to Christianity. The Zagwe were also apparently distant cousins of the rulers of the Kingdom of Simien. Despite some chronicles claiming the father of Jan Seyum and Germa Seyum was of the "race of Judah", Morié believed this dynasty was Christian by the 10th century.
Mara Takla Haimanot 977—992 (15 years) Mara Takla Haymanot 13 years 258 Morié was certain this king was Christian and disagreed with James Bruce's theory that the first five kings of the Zagwe dynasty were Jewish successors of Gudit. Mara Takla Haymanot moved the capital to Roha, which later became Lalibela. It was during this king's reign that a new Abuna was ordained by Coptic Patriarch Philotheos for the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.
Taitou-Ouedem 992—1030 (38 years) Tatawdem 40 years 259 According to Morié, the Abuna Daniel refused to crown Tatadim upon his accession due to considering him a usurper. This resulted in Tatadim asking Philotheos for a new Abuna, but this could not be done without the consent of the current Abuna. Abuna Daniel was later thrown in prison by the vizier of the Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah of Egypt.
Germa Chioum 1030—1070 (40 years) Germa Seyum 40 years 261
Yemrehana Krestos 1070—1110 (40 years) Yemrhana Kristos 40 years 262 Son of Germa Seyum. According to Morié, it was in 1060 that Patriarch of Alexandria ordained Abuna Sawiros as the head of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church after being forced to do so by Badr al-Jamali, the vizier of Caliph al-Mustansir Billah in Egypt. The Pope had initially chosen a different man named Cyril, but he was accused by Badr al-Jamali as bringing Muslims into his home for drinking wine, which is forbidden in Islam. The Pope then sent a different man named Severus, who Morié describes as a "protege" of Badr al-Jamali. Upon the arrival of Severus, Bishop Cyril took his belongings and fled to Dahlak, only to be found and sent to Cairo in 1086 to be executed. Severus attempted to convert Abyssinia to Islam and had seven mosques built, but these were later demolished. According to Morié, Yemrehana Krestos was born in 1030 and died at the age of 80 in 1110.
Jan Chioum 1110—1150 (40 years) Jan Seyum 40 years 260 Son of Yemrehana Krestos according to Morié. He had a wife named Masqal Gabra and they had three children, two sons named Kedus Harbe and Lalibala and one daughter.
Qedous Harbe Chioum I 1150—1182 (32 years) Kedus Arbe (Samt) 40 years 263 Son of Jan Seyum. Had a son named Na'akueto La'ab with a Lasta princess.
Lalibala II 1182—1220 (38 years) Lalibala 40 years 264
Naakueto Laab 1220—1268 (48 years) Nacuto Laab 40 years 265

See also


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