Detailed Pedia

1938

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1938 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1938
MCMXXXVIII
Ab urbe condita2691
Armenian calendar1387
ԹՎ ՌՅՁԷ
Assyrian calendar6688
Baháʼí calendar94–95
Balinese saka calendar1859–1860
Bengali calendar1345
Berber calendar2888
British Regnal yearGeo. 6 – 3 Geo. 6
Buddhist calendar2482
Burmese calendar1300
Byzantine calendar7446–7447
Chinese calendar丁丑年 (Fire Ox)
4634 or 4574
    — to —
戊寅年 (Earth Tiger)
4635 or 4575
Coptic calendar1654–1655
Discordian calendar3104
Ethiopian calendar1930–1931
Hebrew calendar5698–5699
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1994–1995
 - Shaka Samvat1859–1860
 - Kali Yuga5038–5039
Holocene calendar11938
Igbo calendar938–939
Iranian calendar1316–1317
Islamic calendar1356–1357
Japanese calendarShōwa 13
(昭和13年)
Javanese calendar1868–1869
Juche calendar27
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4271
Minguo calendarROC 27
民國27年
Nanakshahi calendar470
Thai solar calendar2480–2481
Tibetan calendar阴火牛年
(female Fire-Ox)
2064 or 1683 or 911
    — to —
阳土虎年
(male Earth-Tiger)
2065 or 1684 or 912

1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1938th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 938th year of the 2nd millennium, the 38th year of the 20th century, and the 9th year of the 1930s decade.


Events

January

January 16: Benny Goodman in New York City
January 27: The Honeymoon Bridge, Niagara, collapses under ice.

February

March

March 4: Oil discovery in Saudi Arabia

April

  • April 10
    • Édouard Daladier becomes prime minister of France. He appoints as Foreign Minister a leading advocate of the policy of appeasement, Georges Bonnet, effectively negating Blum's reassurances of March 14.
    • In a result that astonishes even Hitler, the Austrian electorate in a national referendum approves Anschluss by an overwhelming 99.73%.
  • April 16 – The UK and Italy sign an agreement that sees Britain recognise Italian control of Ethiopia (formally on November 16), in return for an Italian pledge to withdraw all its 10,000 troops from Spain, at the conclusion of the civil war there.
  • April 18Superman first appears in Action Comics #1 (cover date June). The date is established in court documents released during the legal battle over the rights to Superman (on April 18, 2018, DC Comics released Action Comics #1000).
  • April 24Konstantin Päts becomes the first President of Estonia.

May

June

July

August

September

  • September – The European crisis over German demands for annexation of the Sudeten borderland of Czechoslovakia becomes increasingly severe.
  • September 5Czechoslovakian President Edvard Beneš invites mid-level representatives of the Sudeten Germans Hradčany Palace, to tell them he will accept whatever demands they care to make, provided the Sudetenland remains part of the Republic of Czechoslovakia.
  • September 6 – What eventually proves to be the last of the "Nuremberg Rallies" begins. It draws worldwide attention because it is widely assumed that Hitler, in his closing remarks, will signal whether there will be peace with or war over Czechoslovakia.
  • September 7The Times publishes a lead article, which calls on Czechoslovakia to cede the Sudetenland to Germany.
  • September 10Hermann Göring, in a speech at Nuremberg, calls the Czechs a "miserable pygmy race" who are "harassing the human race." That same evening, Edvard Beneš, President of Czechoslovakia, makes a broadcast in which he appeals for calm.
  • September 12Hitler makes his much-anticipated closing address at Nuremberg, in which he vehemently attacks the Czech people and President Beneš. American news commentator Hans von Kaltenborn begins his famous marathon of broadcast bulletins over the CBS Radio Network, with a summation of Hitler's address.
  • September 13 – The followers of Konrad Henlein begin an armed revolt against the Czechoslovak government in Sudetenland. Martial law is declared and after much bloodshed on both sides order is temporarily restored. Neville Chamberlain personally sends a telegram to Hitler, urgently requesting that they both meet.
  • September 15Neville Chamberlain arrives in Berchtesgaden, to begin negotiations with Hitler over the Sudetenland.
  • September 16Lord Runciman is recalled to London from Prague, in order to brief the British government on the situation in the Sudetenland.
  • September 17Neville Chamberlain returns temporarily to London, to confer with his cabinet. The U.S.S.R. Red Army masses along the Ukrainian frontier. Rumania agrees to allow Soviet soldiers free passage across her territory to defend Czechoslovakia.
  • September 18
    • During a meeting between Neville Chamberlain, the recently elected Premier of France, Édouard Daladier, and Daladier's Foreign Minister, Georges Bonnet, it becomes apparent that neither the British nor the French governments are prepared to go to war over the Sudetenland. The Soviet Union declares it will come to the defence of Czechoslovakia only if France honours her commitment to defend Czechoslovak independence.
    • Mussolini makes a speech in Trieste, Italy, where he indicates that Italy is supporting Germany in the Sudeten crisis.
  • September 21
    • In the early hours of the day, representatives of the French and British governments call on Czechoslovak President Edvard Beneš, to tell him France and Britain will not fight Hitler if he decides to annex the Sudetenland by force. Late in the afternoon, the Czechoslovak government capitulates to the French and British demands.
    • Winston Churchill warns of grave consequences to European security, if Czechoslovakia is partitioned. The same day, Soviet Foreign Commissar Maxim Litvinov makes a similar statement in the League of Nations.
    • Following the capitulation of the Czech government to Germany's demands, both Poland and Hungary demand slices of Czech territory where their nationals reside.
    • The 1938 New England hurricane in the United States strikes Long Island and southern New England, killing over 300 along the Rhode Island shoreline and 600 altogether.
  • September 22
    • Unable to survive the previous day's capitulation to the demands of the English and French governments, Czechoslovak premier Milan Hodža resigns. General Jan Syrový takes his place.
    • Neville Chamberlain arrives in the city of Bad Godesberg, for another round of talks with Hitler over the Sudetenland crisis. Hitler raises his demands to include occupation of all German Sudeten territories by October 1. That night after a telephone conference, Chamberlain reverses himself and advises the Czechoslovaks to mobilize.
  • September 23
    • The Czechoslovak army mobilizes.
    • As the Polish army masses along the Czech border, the Soviet Union warns Poland that if it crosses the Czech frontier, Russia will regard the 1932 non-aggression pact between the two countries as void.
  • September 24
    • Sir Eric Phipps, British Ambassador to France, reports to London, "all that is best in France is against war, almost at any price", being opposed only by a "small, but noisy and corrupt, war group". Phipps's report creates major doubts about the ability and/or willingness of France to go to war.
    • At 1:30 AM, Adolf Hitler and Neville Chamberlain conclude their talks on the Sudetenland. Chamberlain agrees to take Hitler's demands, codified in the Godesberg Memorandum, personally to the Czech Government. The Czech Government rejects the demands, as does Chamberlain's own cabinet. The French Government also initially rejects the terms and orders a partial mobilization of the French army.
  • September 25 – British Royal Navy is ordered to sea.
  • September 26 – In a vitriolic speech at Berlin's Sportpalast, Hitler defies the world and implies war with Czechoslovakia will begin at any time.
  • September 28 – As his self-imposed October 1 deadline for occupation of the Sudetenland approaches, Adolf Hitler invites Italian Duce Benito Mussolini, French Premier Edourd Deladier and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain to one last conference in Munich. The Czechs themselves are not invited.
  • September 29
  • September 30 – Neville Chamberlain returns to Britain from meeting with Adolf Hitler, and declares "Peace for our time".

October

November

December

Date unknown

Births

Births
January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January–February

March–April

May–June

July–August

September–October

November–December

Date unknown

Deaths

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Nobel Prizes

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This page was last updated at 2022-08-26 01:09 UTC. Update now. View original page.

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