2009 in paleontology

List of years in paleontology (table)
In science
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
In paleobotany
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
In arthropod paleontology
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
In paleoentomology
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
In paleomalacology
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
In reptile paleontology
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
In archosaur paleontology
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
In mammal paleontology
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
In paleoichthyology
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
Important taxa described (but not necessarily validly named) in 2009

Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2009.

Arthropods

Cephalopods

Three new species of extinct Octopoda discovered in 2009. The species – Keuppia hyperbolaris, Keuppia levante, and Styletoctopus annae – lived about 95 million years ago, and bear a strong resemblance to modern octopuses, suggesting that the Octopoda order has remained relatively unchanged for tens of millions of years. The fossils included evidence of arms, muscles, rows of suckers, ink, and internal gills. The discovery was made by a team led by Dirk Fuchs of the Freie University, which is located at Berlin, Germany. The fossils were found at Hakel and Hadjoula, Lebanon. Various new ammonoid taxa were named, including Ivoites.

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Keuppia

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Fuchs, Bracchi, & Weis

Upper Cenomanian

 Lebanon

Keuppia levante

Styletoctopus

gen et sp nov

Valid

Fuchs, Bracchi, & Weis

Upper Cenomanian

 Lebanon

Ivoites

gen nov

Valid

De Baets, Klug, & Korn

Lower Emsian

 Germany

Cartilaginous fish

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Gansuselache

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Wang et al.

Late Permian

Fangshankou Formation

 China

A member of Hybodontoidea. Genus includes new species G. tungshengi.

Papilionichthys

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

  • Grogan
  • Lund

Carboniferous (Serpukhovian)

Bear Gulch Limestone

 United States

A member of Iniopterygidae. The type species is P. stahlae.

Rainerichthys

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

  • Grogan
  • Lund

Carboniferous (Serpukhovian)

Bear Gulch Limestone

 United States

A member of Iniopterygidae. The type species is R. zangerli.

Bony fish

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images
Aphanius yerevanicus

Valid

  • Vasilyan
  • Reichenbacher
  • Carnevale

Late Miocene

 Armenia

A pupfish, a species of Aphanius.
Carpathoserranoides

Valid

  • Prokofiev

Oligocene

 Czech Republic
 Poland

A member of Percoidei. The type species is C. brnoensis; genus also includes C. polonicus.
Caucasoserranoides

Valid

  • Prokofiev

Oligocene

 Russia

A member of Percoidei. The type species is C. morozkiensis.
Eophryne

Valid

  • Carnevale
  • Pietsch

Eocene (late Ypresian)

Monte Bolca locality

 Italy

A frogfish. The type species is Eophryne barbutii.
Gogosardina

Valid

  • Choo
  • Long
  • Trinajstic

Late Devonian

Gogo Formation

 Australia

An early ray-finned fish. Genus includes new species G. coatesi.
Heddleichthys

Valid

  • Snitting

Famennian (Late Devonian)

Dura Den Formation

 Scotland

Hendrixella

Valid

  • Bannikov
  • Carnevale

Eocene (late Ypresian)

Monte Bolca locality

 Italy

A member of Percoidei of uncertain phylogenetic placement. The type species is Hendrixella grandei.
Langlieria

Valid

  • Clément
  • Snitting
  • Ahlberg

Famennian (Late Devonian)

Evieux Formation

 Belgium

Oligoserranoides

Valid

  • Prokofiev

Oligocene

Abkhazia
 Azerbaijan
 Czech Republic
 France
 Germany
 Hungary
 Poland
 Romania
 Russia
 Ukraine

A member of Percoidei. The type species is "Smerdis" budensis Heckel (1856); genus also includes "Serranus" comparabilis Daniltshenko (1960).
Ridewoodichthys

Valid

  • Taverne

Early Paleocene

 Angola

An arowana; a new genus for "Brychaetus" caheni Taverne (1969).
Ungarnia

Valid

  • Prokofiev

Oligocene

 Romania

A member of Percoidei. The type species is "Serranus" transsylvanicus Bohm (1942).
  • Shimada, K.; Everhart, M.J. (2009). "First record of Anomoeodus (Osteichthyes: Pycnodontiformes) from the Upper Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk of western Kansas". Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 112 (1/2): 98–102. doi:10.1660/062.112.0212. S2CID 83951062.

Amphibians

Newly named amphibians

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Baphetes orientalis

Valid

  • Milner
  • Milner
  • Walsh

Late Carboniferous

 Czech Republic

Cratia

Valid

  • Báez
  • Moura
  • Gómez

Lower Cretaceous

Crato Formation

 Brazil

Possible stem neobatrachian

Eurycephalella

Valid

  • Báez
  • Moura
  • Gómez

Lower Cretaceous

Crato Formation

 Brazil

A hyloid

Nannaroter

Valid

Early Permian

 USA

The smallest known ostodolepid microsaur

Nesovtriton

Valid

  • Skutschas

Turonian

Bissekty Formation

 Uzbekistan

A cryptobranchoid salamander

Regalerpeton

Valid

Early Cretaceous

Huajiying Formation

 China

A cryptobranchoid salamander

Spinarerpeton

Valid

  • Klembara

Early Permian

Boskovice Furrow

 Czech Republic

A discosauriscid seymouriamorph

Basal reptiles

Newly named basal reptiles

Name Status Authors Discovery year Age Unit Location Notes Images

Australothyris

Valid

Middle Permian

Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone

 South Africa

A basal parareptile

Procolina

Valid

  • Borsuk−Białynicka
  • Lubka

early Late Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A procolophonine procolophonid

Turtles

Newly named turtles

Name Status Authors Discovery year Age Unit Location Notes Images

Angolachelys

Valid

  • Mateus
  • Jacobs
  • et al.

Turonian (Late Cretaceous)

 Angola

Aurorachelys

Valid

  • Vandermark
  • Tarduno
  • et al.

Late Cretaceous

Strand Fiord Formation

 Canada

Basilochelys

Valid

  • Tong
  • Claude
  • et al.

Late Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous

Phu Kradung Formation

 Thailand

Cedrobaena

Valid

  • Lyson
  • Joyce

Paleocene

Fort Union Formation

 USA

New genus for "Plesiobaena" putorius Gaffney, 1972

Chelonoidis alburyorum

Valid

  • Franz
  • Franz

Holocene

 The Bahamas

A tortoise.

Chinlechelys

Valid

  • Joyce et al.

Late Triassic (Norian)

Bull Canyon Formation

 United States

A basal member of Testudinata. The type species is C. tenertesta. The genus Chinlechelys was considered to be a junior synonym of the genus Proganochelys by Joyce (2017), though the author maintained C. tenertesta as a distinct species within the latter genus.

Derrisemys

Junior synonym

  • Hutchison

Early Paleocene

 USA

Junior synonym of Hutchemys.

Eileanchelys

Valid

  • Anquetin
  • Barrett
  • et al.

Middle Jurassic

Kilmaluag Formation

 Scotland

Hutchemys

Valid

  • Joyce
  • Revan
  • Lyson
  • Danilov

Paleocene

Fort Union Formation
Tullock Formation

 USA

A plastomenine softshell turtles

Kinkonychelys

Valid

Late Cretaceous

Maevarano Formation

 Madagascar

Palatobaena cohen

Valid

  • Lyson
  • Joyce

Maastrichtian

Hell Creek Formation

 USA

A baenid

Peckemys

Valid

  • Lyson
  • Joyce

Late Cretaceous

Hell Creek Formation

 USA

A baenid

Plastomenoides

Junior synonym

  • Hutchison

Early Paleocene

 USA

Junior synonym of Hutchemys.

Archosauromorphs

Basal archosauromorphs

Newly named basal archosauromorphs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Czatkowiella

Valid

  • Borsuk−Białynicka
  • Evans

earliest Late Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A long−necked archosauromorph

Archosaurs

Lepidosauromorphs

Basal lepidosauromorphs

Newly named basal lepidosauromorphs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Pamelina

Valid

Early Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A basal kuehneosaurid

Sophineta

Valid

  • Evans
  • Borsuk−Białynicka

earliest Late Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A basal lepidosauromorph

Plesiosaurs

Newly named plesiosaurs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Gallardosaurus

Valid

  • Gasparini

Late Jurassic (Oxfordian)

Jagua Formation

 Cuba

Gallardosaurus

Nichollssaura

Valid

  • Druckenmiller
  • Russell

Early Cretaceous (Albian)

Clearwater Formation

 Canada

Replacement name for Nichollsia Druckenmiller & Russell, 2008, preoccupied by an isopod genus Nichollsia Chopra & Tiwari, 1950

Nichollssaura.

Rarosaurus

Disputed

  • Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

A member of Polycotylidae. The type species is R. singularis.

Squamates

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Carinodens minalmamar

Sp. nov

Valid

Schulp, Bardet & Bouya

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Morocco

A mosasaur.

Titanoboa

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Head et al.

Paleocene

Cerrejón Formation

 Colombia

In February, the fossils of 28 individual T. cerrejonensis (Titanoboas) were announced to have been found in the coal mines of Cerrejón, La Guajira, Colombia.

Synapsids

Non-mammalian

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Protuberum

Valid

  • Reichel
  • Schultz
  • Soares

Middle Triassic (Ladinian)

Santa Maria Formation

 Brazil

Raranimus

Valid

  • Liu
  • Rubidge
  • Li

Middle Permian (Roadian)

Xidagou Formation

 China

Raranimus dasahankouensis

Yuanotherium

Valid

  • Hu
  • Meng
  • Clark

Late Jurassic (Oxfordian)

Shishugou Formation

 China

Mammals

Plants

Angiosperms

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Eucalyptolaurus

gen et sp nov

Valid

Coiffard et al.

uppermost Albian-lowermost Cenomanian

Charente-Maritimes

 France

Relevant research in other sciences

Evolutionary biology

  • A study is published that proposes that females from certain taxa use ornaments as a criterion for mate choice because other dimorphic structures, like biological "weaponry" could be used to coerce or force them to mate.
  • A study concludes that biotic factors have more pronounced local and short term evolutionary impacts than abiotic factors, which in turn have a more pronounced effect through time and on biodiversity as a whole.

Extinction

A study noting the effects of the KT mass extinction on Earth's modern biota is published.

Geology

Ichnology

  • Bedatou E., Melchor R.N., Genise J.F. (2009). "Complex palaeosol ichnofabrics from Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous volcaniclastic successions of central Patagonia, Argentina". Sedimentary Geology. 218 (1–4): 74–102. Bibcode:2009SedG..218...74B. doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2009.04.005.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

Paleobiogeography

  • Pereda-Suberbiola X (2009). "Biogeographical affinities of Late Cretaceous continental tetrapods of Europe: a review". Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France. 180 (1): 57–71. doi:10.2113/gssgfbull.180.1.57.

Paleoecology

  • Nicolas M., Rubidge B.S. (2009). "Changes in Permo-Triassic terrestrial tetrapod ecological representation in the Beaufort Group (Karoo Supergroup) of South Africa". Lethaia. 43: 45–59. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.2009.00171.x.

Footnotes

Complete author list

As science becomes more collaborative, papers with large numbers of authors are becoming more common. To prevent the deformation of the tables, these footnotes list the contributors to papers that erect new genera and have many authors.

  1. ^ Mateus, Jacobs, Polcyn, Schulp, Vineyard, Neto, Antunes.
  2. ^ Vandermark, Tarduno, Brinkman, Cottrell, Mason.
  3. ^ Tong, Claude, Naksri, Suteethorn, Buffetaut, Khansubba, Wongko, Yuandetkla.
  4. ^ Anquetin, Barrett, Jones, Moore-Fay, Evans.

References

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716.
  2. ^ Rare fossil octopuses found, NBC News, March 18, 2009
  3. ^ New Octopus from the late Cretaceous of Hakel and Hadjoula, Lebanon, Palaeontology, Volume 52, Issue 1, Pages 65-81
  4. ^ a b Fuchs, D.; Bracchi, G.; Weis, R. (2009). "New Octopods (Cephalopoda: Coleoidea) from the Late Cretaceous (Upper Cenomanian) of Hakel and Hadjoula, Lebanon". Palaeontology. 52 (1): 65–81. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2008.00828.x.
  5. ^ De Baets, K.; Klug, C.; Korn, D. (2009). "Anetoceratinae (Ammonoidea, Early Devonian) from the Eifel and Harz Mountains (Germany), with a revision of their genera". Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen. 252 (3): 361–376. doi:10.1127/0077-7749/2009/0252-0361.
  6. ^ N.‐Z. Wang; X. Zhang; M. Zhu; W.‐J. Zhao (2009). "A new articulated hybodontoid from Late Permian of northwestern China". Acta Zoologica. 90 (s1): 159–170. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2008.00382.x.
  7. ^ a b Eileen D. Grogan; Richard Lund (2009). "Two new iniopterygians (Chondrichthyes) from the Mississippian (Serpukhovian) Bear Gulch Limestone of Montana with evidence of a new form of chondrichthyan neurocranium". Acta Zoologica. 90 (s1): 134–151. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2008.00371.x.
  8. ^ Davit Vasilyan; Bettina Reichenbacher; Giorgio Carnevale (2009). "A new fossil Aphanius species from the Upper Miocene of Armenia (Eastern Paratethys)". Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 83 (4): 511–519. doi:10.1007/s12542-009-0034-4. S2CID 129643131.
  9. ^ a b c d A.M. Prokofiev (2009). "К систематике олигоценовых перкоидных рыб, известных под сборным названием "Serranus budensis", с выделением новых таксонов". Актуальные проблемы современной науки. 46: 199–222.
  10. ^ Giorgio Carnevale; Theodore W. Pietsch (2009). "An Eocene frogfish from Monte Bolca, Italy: the earliest known skeletal record for the family". Palaeontology. 52 (4): 745–752. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2009.00874.x.
  11. ^ Brian Choo; John A. Long; Katherine Trinajstic (2009). "A new genus and species of basal actinopterygian fish from the Upper Devonian Gogo Formation of Western Australia". Acta Zoologica. 90 (s1): 194–210. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2008.00370.x.
  12. ^ Snitting, D. (2009). "Heddleichthys- a new tristichopterid genus from the Dura Den Formation, Midland Valley, Scotland (Famennian, Late Devonian)". Acta Zoologica. 90: 273–284. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2008.00376.x.
  13. ^ Alexandre F. Bannikov; Giorgio Carnevale (2009). "A new percoid fish from the Eocene of Monte Bolca, Italy: Hendrixella grandei gen. & sp. nov". Swiss Journal of Geosciences. 102 (3): 481–488. doi:10.1007/s00015-009-1331-3. S2CID 129475416.
  14. ^ Clément, G; Snitting, D; Ahlberg, PE; Gaël Clément; Daniel Snitting; Per Erik Ahlberg (July 2009). "A new Tristichopterid (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha) from the Evieux Formation (Upper Devonian) of Belgium". Palaeontology. 52 (4): 823–836. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2009.00876.x.
  15. ^ Louis Taverne (2009). "Ridewoodichthys, a new genus for Brychaetus caheni from the marine Paleocene of Cabinda (Africa): re-description and comments on its relationships within the Osteoglossidae (Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha)". Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre. 79: 147–153.
  16. ^ Angela C. Milner; Andrew R. Milner; Stig A. Walsh (2009). "A new specimen of Baphetes from Nýřany, Czech Republic and the intrinsic relationships of the Baphetidae". Acta Zoologica. 90 (s1): 318–334. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2008.00340.x.
  17. ^ a b Báez, Ana M.; Moura, Geraldo J.B.; Gómez, Raúl O.; Ana M. Báez; Geraldo J.B. Moura; Raúl O. Gómez (2009). "Anurans from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of northeastern Brazil: implications for the early divergence of neobatrachians". Cretaceous Research. 30 (4): 829–846. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2009.01.002.
  18. ^ Anderson, J.S.; Scott, D.; Reisz, R.R. (2009). "Nannaroter mckinziei, a new ostodolepid 'microsaur' (Tetrapoda, Lepospondyli, Recumbirostra) from the Early Permian of Richards Spur (Ft. Sill), Oklahoma". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29 (2): 379–388. doi:10.1671/039.029.0222. S2CID 130420068.
  19. ^ Skutschas, Pavel P.; Pavel P. Skutschas (2009). "Re-Evaluation of Mynbulakia Nesov, 1981 (Lissamphibia: Caudata) and Description of a New Salamander Genus from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29 (3): 659–664. doi:10.1671/039.029.0326. S2CID 85024012.
  20. ^ Zhang, Guilin; Wang, Yuan; Jones, Marc E.H.; Evans, Susan E.; Guilin Zhang; Yuan Wang; Marc E.H. Jones; Susan E. Evans (2009). "A new Early Cretaceous salamander (Regalerpeton weichangensis gen. et sp. nov.) from the Huajiying Formation of northeastern China". Cretaceous Research. 30 (3): 551–558. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2008.10.004.
  21. ^ Klembara, Jozef (2009). "The skeletal anatomy and relationships of a new discosauriscid seymouriamorph from the lower Permian of Moravia (Czech Republic)". Annals of Carnegie Museum. 77 (4): 451–483. doi:10.2992/0097-4463-77.4.451. S2CID 86629854.
  22. ^ Sean P. Modesto; Diane M. Scott; Robert R. Reisz (2009). "A new parareptile with temporal fenestration from the Middle Permian of South Africa". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 46 (1): 9–20. Bibcode:2009CaJES..46....9M. doi:10.1139/E09-001. Retrieved 14 August 2010.[permanent dead link]
  23. ^ Magdalena Borsuk−Białynicka; Mariusz Lubka (2009). "Procolophonids from the Early Triassic of Poland" (PDF). Paleontologica Polonica. 65: 107–144. Retrieved 12 August 2010..
  24. ^ Octávio Mateus; Louis Jacobs; Michael Polcyn; Anne S. Schulp; Diana Vineyard; André Buta Neto; Miguel Telles Antunes (2009). "The oldest African eucryptodiran turtle from the Cretaceous of Angola" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 54 (4): 581–588. doi:10.4202/app.2008.0063. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
  25. ^ Vandermark, D.; Tarduno, J.A.; Brinkman, D.B.; Cottrell, R.D.; Mason, S. (2009). "New Late Cretaceous macrobaenid turtle with Asian affinities from the High Canadian Arctic: dispersal via ice-free polar routes". Geology. 37 (2): 183–186. Bibcode:2009Geo....37..183V. doi:10.1130/G25415A.1.
  26. ^ Tong, H.; Claude, J.; Naksri, W.; Suteethorn, V.; Buffetaut, E.; Khansubha, S.; Wongko, K. & Yuangdetkla, P. (2009). "Basilochelys macrobios n. gen. and n. sp., a large cryptodiran turtle from the Phu Kradung Formation (latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous) of the Khorat Plateau, NE Thailand". In: Buffetaut, E.; Cuny, G.; Le Loeuff, J. & Suteethorn, V. (eds.). Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Ecosystems in SE Asia. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 315: 229-243.
  27. ^ a b Lyson, T.R.; Joyce, W.G. (2009). "A revision of Plesiobaena (Testudinoes: Baenidae) and an assessment of Baenid ecology across the K/T boundary". Journal of Paleontology. 83 (6): 833–853. doi:10.1666/09-035.1. S2CID 85964417.
  28. ^ Richard Franz; Shelley E. Franz (2009). "A new fossil land tortoise in the genus Chelonoidis (Testudines: Testudinidae) from the northern Bahamas, with an osteological assessment of other Neotropical tortoises". Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History. 49 (1): 1–44.
  29. ^ Walter G. Joyce; Spencer G. Lucas; Torsten M. Scheyer; Andrew B. Heckert; Adrian P. Hunt (2009). "A thin-shelled reptile from the Late Triassic of North America and the origin of the turtle shell". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276 (1656): 507–513. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1196. PMC 2664348. PMID 18842543.
  30. ^ Walter G. Joyce (2017). "A Review of the Fossil Record of Basal Mesozoic Turtles" (PDF). Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. 58 (1): 65–113. doi:10.3374/014.058.0105. S2CID 54982901.
  31. ^ a b John Howard Hutchison (2009). "New soft-shelled turtles (Plastomeninae, Trionychidae, Testudines) from the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene of North America". PaleoBios. 29 (2): 36–47. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
  32. ^ a b Walter G. Joyce; Tyler R. Lyson (2011). "New Material of Gilmoremys lancensis nov. comb. (Testudines: Trionychidae) from the Hell Creek Formation and the Diagnosis of Plastomenid Turtles". Journal of Paleontology. 85 (3): 442–459. doi:10.1666/10-127.1. S2CID 129918006.
  33. ^ Anquetin, J.; Barrett, P.M.; Jones, M.E.H.; Moore-Fay, S.; Evans, S.E. (2009). "A new stem turtle from the Middle Jurassic of Scotland: new insights into the evolution and palaeoecology of basal turtles". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 276 (1658): 879–886. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1429. PMC 2664364. PMID 19019789..
  34. ^ Walter G. Joyce; Ariel Revan; Tyler R. Lyson; Igor G. Danilov (2009). "Two New Plastomenine Softshell Turtles from the Paleocene of Montana and Wyoming" (PDF). Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. 50 (2): 307–325. doi:10.3374/014.050.0202. S2CID 85505337. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
  35. ^ Gaffney, E.S.; Krause, D.W.; Zalmout, I.S. (2009). "Kinkonychelys, a new side-necked turtle (Pelomedusoides: Bothremydidae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar". American Museum Novitates (3662): 1–25. doi:10.1206/672.1. hdl:2246/5985. S2CID 54740846.
  36. ^ Lyson, T.R.; Joyce, W.G. (2009). "A New Species of Palatobaena (Testudines: Baenidae) and a Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian Phylogenetic Analysis of Baenidae". Journal of Paleontology. 83 (3): 457–470. doi:10.1666/08-172.1. S2CID 86045244.
  37. ^ Magdalena Borsuk−Białynicka; Susan E. Evans (2009). "A long−necked archosauromorph from the Early Triassic of Poland" (PDF). Paleontologica Polonica. 65: 203–234. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
  38. ^ Susan E. Evans (2009). "An early kuehneosaurid reptile (Reptilia: Diapsida) from the Early Triassic of Poland" (PDF). Paleontologica Polonica. 65: 145–178. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  39. ^ Susan E. Evans; Magdalena Borsuk−Białynicka (2009). "A small lepidosauromorph reptile from the Early Triassic of Poland" (PDF). Paleontologica Polonica. 65: 179–202. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  40. ^ Gasparini, Z. (2009). "A New Oxfordian Pliosaurid (Plesiosauria, Pliosauridae) in the Caribbean Seaway". Palaeontology. 52 (3): 661–669. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2009.00871.x. S2CID 55353949.
  41. ^ Druckenmiller, P.S.; Russell, A.P. (2009). "The new plesiosaurian genus Nichollssaura from Alberta, Canada: replacement name for the preoccupied genus Nichollsia". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29 (1): 276. doi:10.1080/02724634.2009.10010379. S2CID 83847722.
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