Temporal range: Late Triassic, 225 Ma
Life restoration
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Synapsida
Clade: Therapsida
Clade: Cynodontia
Clade: Mammaliamorpha
Genus: Adelobasileus
Lucas & Hunt, 1990
A. cromptoni
Binomial name
Adelobasileus cromptoni
Lucas & Hunt, 1990

Adelobasileus is a genus of mammaliamorph cynodonts from the Late Triassic (Carnian), about 225 million years ago. It is known only from a partial skull recovered from the Tecovas Formation in western Texas, southern United States, referred to the species Adelobasileus cromptoni.

Roughly contemporary with the mammaliaform Tikitherium, Adelobasileus predates the non-mammalian cynodonts Tritylodontidae and Tritheledontidae by 10 million years. Distinct cranial features, especially the housing of the cochlea, suggest that Adelobasileus is a transitional form in the character transformation from non-mammaliaform cynodonts to mammaliaforms. For this reason, it is thought to be a close relative of the common ancestor of all modern mammals. Though traditionally classified as a mammal by trait-based taxonomy, it is outside the crown group containing all true mammals.

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