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António Ramalho Eanes

António Ramalho Eanes
General António Ramalho Eanes.png
António Ramalho Eanes in 2019
President of Portugal
In office
14 July 1976 – 9 March 1986
Prime MinisterJosé Pinheiro de Azevedo
Mário Soares
Alfredo Nobre da Costa
Carlos Mota Pinto
Maria de Lurdes Pintasilgo
Francisco Sá Carneiro
Francisco Pinto Balsemão
Aníbal Cavaco Silva
Preceded byFrancisco da Costa Gomes
Succeeded byMário Soares
President of the Democratic Renewal Party
In office
19 October 1986 – 29 May 1988
Vice PresidentHermínio Martinho
Preceded byHermínio Martinho
Succeeded byHermínio Martinho
President of the Revolutionary Council
In office
14 July 1976 – 30 September 1982
Preceded byFrancisco da Costa Gomes
Succeeded byOffice abolished
Chief of the Armed Forces General Staff
In office
14 July 1976 – 16 February 1981
Preceded byFrancisco da Costa Gomes
Succeeded byNuno de Melo Egídio
Chair of Radio and Television of Portugal
In office
28 October 1974 – 11 March 1975
Preceded byCasimiro Gomes
Succeeded byJoão António de Figueiredo
Personal details
António dos Santos Ramalho Eanes

(1935-01-25) 25 January 1935 (age 87)
Louriçal do Campo, Castelo Branco, Portugal
Political partyIndependent
Other political
Democratic Renewal Party (1986–87)
(m. 1970)
Alma materMilitary Academy
Military service
Allegiance Portugal
Branch/service Portuguese Army
Years of service1952–1986
Battles/warsPortuguese Colonial War

António dos Santos Ramalho Eanes, GColL GCL GColTE CavA GCB RVC (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtɔniu ʁɐˈmaʎu iˈɐnɨʃ]; born 25 January 1935) is a Portuguese general and politician who was the 16th president of Portugal from 1976 to 1986.


Born at Alcains, Castelo Branco, he is the son of Manuel dos Santos Eanes, a general contractor, and wife Maria do Rosário Ramalho.

Political career

After a long military career in the Portuguese Colonial Wars, he was stationed in Portuguese Angola when the 25 April revolution of 1974 took place. He joined the Movimento das Forças Armadas (MFA or Armed Forces Movement) and after returning to Portugal, he was made president of RTP (Portuguese public television). He ordered the military operations against the pro-communist radical faction of the MFA on 25 November 1975, an event known as the 25 de Novembro, ending that year's "hot summer" (Verão quente).

António Ramalho Eanes (left), while president, departs after a state visit to the United States. Secretary of State George Shultz is on the right. (USAF)

In 1976 he was elected President of Portugal. At the end of 1980 he was re-elected, serving until February 1986. After his presidency, he headed the Democratic Renewal Party (Portuguese: Partido Renovador Democrático), and continued to support Social Democratic Party (PSD) minority government until 1987. He resigned in 1987 after defeated by PSD in legislative election.

He is also a Member of the Portuguese Council of State, as a former elected President of Portugal.

He rejected any suggestion of becoming a Marshal, considering the title unnecessary.





He married at the Palace of Queluz on 28 October 1970 to Maria Manuela Duarte Neto de Portugal Ramalho Eanes (b. 29 December 1938), who was one of Portugal's most politically active First Ladies, making speeches at Democratic Renewal Party rallies while her husband was president. They had two sons, Manuel António (b. 5 May 1972) and Miguel (b. 1977).

Electoral results

1976 Portuguese presidential election

Summary of the 27 June 1976 Portuguese presidential election results
Candidates Supporting parties First round
Votes %
António Ramalho Eanes Independent 2,967,137 61.59
Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho Independent 692,147 14.37
José Pinheiro de Azevedo Independent 593,021 14.07
Octávio Rodrigues Pato Portuguese Communist Party 365,586 7.59
Total valid 4,817,630 100.00
Blank ballots 43,242 0.89
Invalid ballots 20,253 0.41
Total (turnout 75.47%) 4,881,125
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições

1980 Portuguese presidential election

Summary of the 7 December 1980 Portuguese presidential election results
Candidates Supporting parties First round
Votes %
António Ramalho Eanes Independent 3,262,520 56.44
António Soares Carneiro Democratic Alliance 2,325,481 40.23
Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho Independent 85,896 1.49
Carlos Galvão de Melo Independent 48,468 0.84
António Pires Veloso Independent 45,132 0.78
António Aires Rodrigues Workers Party of Socialist Unity 12,745 0.22
Carlos Brito Portuguese Communist Party left the race
Total valid 5,780,242 100.00
Blank ballots 44,014 0.75
Invalid ballots 16,076 0.28
Total (turnout 84.39%) 5,840,332
A He left the race in favor of Ramalho Eanes.
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições

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