Jiufotang Formation

Jiufotang Formation
Stratigraphic range: Aptian
~122–118.9 Ma
TypeGeological formation
Unit ofJehol Group
Sub-unitsShangheshou & Meileyingzi Beds
UnderliesFuxin & Shahai Formations
OverliesYixian Formation
Lithology
PrimaryMudstone
OtherSandstone
Location
Coordinates41°12′N 119°24′E / 41.2°N 119.4°E / 41.2; 119.4Coordinates: 41°12′N 119°24′E / 41.2°N 119.4°E / 41.2; 119.4
Approximate paleocoordinates44°24′N 119°30′E / 44.4°N 119.5°E / 44.4; 119.5
RegionLiaoning
Country China
Type section
Named forJiufotang, Pingfangzi, Liaoning
Named byRyuji Endo
Year defined1934
Jiufotang Formation is located in China
Jiufotang Formation
Jiufotang Formation (China)
Jiufotang Formation is located in Liaoning
Jiufotang Formation
Jiufotang Formation (Liaoning)

The Jiufotang Formation (Chinese: 九佛堂组, pinyin: jiǔfótáng zǔ) is an Early Cretaceous geological formation in Chaoyang, Liaoning which has yielded fossils of feathered dinosaurs, primitive birds, pterosaurs, and other organisms (see Jehol Biota). It is a member of the Jehol group. The exact age of the Jiufotang has been debated for years, with estimates ranging from the Late Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. New uranium-lead dates reveal the formation is deposited in the Aptian stage of the Early Cretaceous. Fossils of Microraptor and Jeholornis are from the Jiufotang.

Fossil content

Choristoderans

Genus Species County Member Abundance Notes
Philydrosaurus P. proseilus Monjurosuchid
Ikechosaurus I. pijiagouensis Simoedosaurid
Liaoxisaurus L. chaoyangensis Simoedosaurid

Fish

Genus Species County Member Abundance Notes Images
Jinanichthys J. longicephalus An osteoglossomorph
Lycoptera L. davidi An osteoglossomorph
Lycoptera reconstruction.jpg
Peipiaosteus P. pani A fish related to sturgeons
Protopsephurus P. liui A paddlefish
Sinamia S. zdanskyi An amiiform
Sinamia.JPG

Mammaliamorphs

Several mammaliamorph specimens have been found from the Jiufotang, but only two have been formally described and named.

Genus Species County Member Abundance Notes
Fossiomanus F. sinensis A nearly complete skeleton A tritylodontid
Liaoconodon L. hui A nearly complete skeleton A eutriconodont
Unnamed mammal Unnamed Partial remains including a foot and fragments of the skull A mammal similar to Eomaia and Sinodelphys from the Yixian Formation. Found as stomach contents of Microraptor zhaoianus.

Ornithischians

Genus Species County Member Material Notes Images

Chuanqilong

C. chaoyangensis

Liaoning A nearly complete skeleton missing only the distal portion of the caudal series.

A basal ankylosaurid, sister taxon to Liaoningosaurus.

Chuanqilong chaoyangensis.png

Psittacosaurus

Psittacosaurus meileyingensis

Meileyingzi Bed

"[Four] individuals, [two] complete skulls."

A ceratopsian.

Psittacosaurus mongoliensis

Shangheshou and Meileyingzi Beds

Pterosaurs

Genus Species County Member Abundance Notes Images

Chaoyangopterus

C. zhangi

A chaoyangopterid.

Eoazhdarcho

E. liaoxiensis

A chaoyangopterid.

Forfexopterus F. jeholensis A ctenochasmatid.
Guidraco

G. venator

A pteranodontoid.

Hongshanopterus H. lacustris An istiodactylid.

"Huaxiapterus"

"H." benxiensis

In need of new generic name.

"H." corollatus

A tapejarid, in need of new generic name, probably the same genus as "H." benxiensis.

Ikrandraco

I. avatar

A pteranodontoid.

Jidapterus

J. edentus

A chaoyangopterid.

Liaoningopterus

L. gui

A pteranodontoid.

Liaoxipterus

L. brachyognathus

An istiodactylid.

Linlongopterus

L. jennyae

A pteranodontoid.

Nemicolopterus

N. crypticus

A tapejaromorph. Previously and still occasionally thought to be a Tapejarid. Most likely a juvenile, hence small size.

Nurhachius

N. ignaciobritoi

An istiodactylid.
Pangupterus P. liui A pterodactyloid.

Shenzhoupterus

S. chaoyangensis

A chaoyangopterid.

Sinopterus

S. dongi

A tapejarid.

S. jii

Previously known as Huxiapterus jii.

Vesperopterylus

V. lamadongensis

An anurognathid.

Saurischians

A large titanosaur is present in the formation.

Enantiornithines

Genus Species County Member Material Notes Images

Alethoalaornis

Alethoalaornis agitornis

An enantiornithean

Boluochia

Boluochia zhengi

"Partial skull [and] partial postcranium."

A longipterygid

Brevirostruavis Brevirostruavis macrohyoideus "an extremely elongate bony hyoid element (only slightly shorter than the skull), combined with a short cranial rostrum." An enantiornithine

Cathayornis

Cathayornis aberransis

An enantiornithine

Cathayornis caudatus

Nomen dubium

Cathayornis yandica

"Partial skeleton."

An enantiornithean

Cuspirostrisornis

Cuspirostrisornis houi

A possible avisaurid

Dapingfangornis

Dapingfangornis sentisorhinus

An enantiornithean

Eocathayornis

Eocathayornis walkeri

"Partial skeleton."

An enantiornithean

Gracilornis

Gracilornis jiufotangensis

An enantiornithean

Huoshanornis

Huoshanornis huji

An enantiornithean

Largirostrornis

Largirostrornis sexdentoris

An enantiornithean

Longchengornis

Longchengornis sanyanensis

An enantiornithean

Longipteryx

Longipteryx chaoyangensis

A longipterygid

Musivavis Musivavis amabilis "A nearly complete and articulated skeleton preserved in a single slab." An euenantiornithean

Rapaxavis

Rapaxavis pani

A longipterygid

Shangyang

Shangyang graciles

An enantiornithean

Sinornis

Sinornis santensis

"Partial skull [and] many nearly complete postcranial skeletons."

An enantiornithean

Xiangornis

Xiangornis shenmi

An enantiornithean

Yuanchuavis

Yuanchuavis kompsosoura

An pengornithid

Euornithines

Genus Species County Member Material Notes Images

Aberratiodontus

A. wui

Junior synonym of Yanornis martini

Chaoyangia

C. beishanensis

"Partial skeleton."

A basal euornithean

Jianchangornis

J. microdonta

Jianchang

A basal euornithean

Mengciusornis

M. dentatus

A schizoourid

Parahongshanornis

P. chaoyangensis

A hongshanornithid

Piscivoravis

P. lii

An ornithuromorph

Schizooura

S. lii

Jianchang

A schizoourid with long, forked tail feathers

Similiyanornis

S. brevipectus

An ornithuromorph

Songlingornis

S. linghensis

An ornithuromorph

Yanornis

Y. martini

An ornithuromorph

Yixianornis

Y. grabaui

An ornithuromorph

Zhongjianornis

Z. yangi

A basal euornithean

Misc theropods

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Genus Species County Member Material Notes Images

Confuciusornis

C. sanctus

A primitive short-tailed avialan (pygostylian). Also present in the Yixian Formation

C. jianchangensis

Liaoning

Dalianraptor

D. cuhe

Nomen dubium, named from a forged artificially assembled specimen.

Jeholornis

J. prima

A jeholornithiform avialan, also present in the Yixian Formation

J. palmapenis

A jeholornithiform

Kompsornis

K. longicaudatus

"Nearly complete specimen".

A jeholornithiform

Microraptor

M. gui

Shangheshou Bed

Extremely common

Could be synonym of Microraptor zhaoianus

M. zhaoianus

Shangheshou Bed

"At least [three] partial semiarticulated postcrania and several skulls." Feathered integument is also preserved.

A dromaeosaurid.

Neimengornis

N. rectusmim

A jeholornithiform

Omnivoropteryx

O. sinousaorum

An omnivoropterygiform

Sapeornis

S. angustis

"Nearly complete skeleton without skull."

An omnivoropterygiform, a primitive short-tailed avialan

S. chaoyangensis

Shenshiornis

Shenshiornis primita

An omnivoropterygiform

Similicaudipteryx

S. yixianensis

An oviraptorosaur

Sinotyrannus

S. kazuoensis

A tyrannosauroid

See also


This page was last updated at 2022-09-16 18:49 UTC. Update now. View original page.

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