List of paleotempestology records

Paleotempestology is the study of past tropical cyclone activity by means of geological proxies as well as historical documentary records. The term was coined by American meteorologist Kerry Emanuel.

Examples

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Place Country/state Data sources Duration of the record, in years Conclusions Sources Approximate coordinates
Actun Tunichil Muknal Belize Oxygen and carbon isotopes in a quickly growing stalagmite AD 1977 – 2000 Strong correlation of hits by named tropical cyclones with isotope ratio variations 17°07′03″N 88°53′26″W / 17.1174957°N 88.8904667°W / 17.1174957; -88.8904667
Amur Bay Russia Sediments from floods 1,800 Low storm activity in the last 500 years, probably correlated to the Little Ice Age but continuing into the 19th and 20th century 43°05′29″N 131°26′56″E / 43.0914432°N 131.4489867°E / 43.0914432; 131.4489867
Angliers Pond Florida Lake sediments AD 1920 Three storm deposits, linked presumably to Hurricane Donna, Great Miami Hurricane and 1921 Tampa hurricane 26°25′N 82°04′W / 26.42°N 82.06°W / 26.42; -82.06
Ara River Japan River terraces formed by typhoon flooding 11,600 Intense flooding during the late glacial to 5,000 – 4,500 years ago indicate increased typhoon activity, followed by a period of less intense activity until about 2,350 years ago 35°N 140°E / 35°N 140°E / 35; 140
Bay Jimmy Louisiana Seafloor sediments 1,200 years Four intense storms, including two recent ones 29°27′06″N 89°54′03″W / 29.4517531°N 89.9007164°W / 29.4517531; -89.9007164Google (23 December 2020). "Bay Jimmy" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda Sediments in a coastal lagoon 5,000 Inactive period between 2,500 – 1,500 years, preceded and followed by more active periods 17°38′10″N 61°52′45″W / 17.6361809°N 61.8792619°W / 17.6361809; -61.8792619
Basin Bayou Florida Overwash and inundation deposits 2,000 Over twice as active as today 900–1050 CE, with less activity 250 - 650 CE and 1150 - 1850 CE 30°29′23″N 86°14′47″W / 30.4897°N 86.2463°W / 30.4897; -86.2463
Belize, central Belize Overwash deposits 500 1.2-1 catastrophic storms per century including one very strong storm before 1500AD 17°00′N 88°15′W / 17.000°N 88.250°W / 17.000; -88.250
Belize, south-central Belize Sediments 7,000 Several active periods, between 6,900 – 6,700, 6,050 – 5,750, 5,450 – 4,750, 4,200 – 3,200, 2,600 – 1,450 and 600 – c. 200 years ago 16°54′N 88°18′W / 16.9°N 88.3°W / 16.9; -88.3
Big Pine Key Florida Tree ring evidence of storm damage AD 1700–present Decreased activity correlated to decreased shipwreck rates in the Maunder Minimum 25°N 80°W / 25°N 80°W / 25; -80
Blackwood Sinkhole Bahamas Sand deposits in sinkhole 3,000 A stage without intense storms between 2,900 – 2,500 years ago, followed by an active period that lasted until 1,000 years ago. Two intense events about 500 years ago and an increase between 300 – 100 years ago 27°N 78°W / 27°N 78°W / 27; -78
Brigantine, New Jersey New Jersey Sediments 1,500 Two strong storms between 600–700 and 700–1,400 AD; nor'easters are also recorded here 39°24′7″N 74°21′52″W / 39.40194°N 74.36444°W / 39.40194; -74.36444
Cenote Chaltun Ha Yucatan Mud layers in speleothems AD 365 – 2007 Frequent flooding during the 7th, 9th and 19th century with less common flooding during the 13th and 15–17th centuries. Also, evidence of strong tropical cyclone strikes during the Terminal Classic Maya 20°28′N 89°10′W / 20.46°N 89.17°W / 20.46; -89.17
Commerce Bight Lagoon Belize Sediment cores 7,000 Active periods between 600 and 200, 1,450 – 2,600, 3,200 – 4,200, 4,750 – 5,450, 5,750 – 6,050 years ago 16°50′N 88°20′W / 16.833°N 88.333°W / 16.833; -88.333
Charlotte Harbor Florida Sediments 8,000 Increased activity between 3,000 – 2,000 years ago and also during El Nino-leaning periods 26°50′N 82°5′W / 26.833°N 82.083°W / 26.833; -82.083
Chaungtha Myanmar Washover deposits Cyclone Mala and two older tropical cyclones 16°56′51″N 94°22′13″E / 16.947505°N 94.370262°E / 16.947505; 94.370262
Chenier Plain Louisiana Sediments in coastal plain 600 7 hurricanes with category 3 or more intensity are known in the last 600 years, giving a frequency of 1.2 storms per century. Among the storms are Hurricane Audrey and Hurricane Rita 29°45′54″N 93°48′02″W / 29.7649394°N 93.8004488°W / 29.7649394; -93.8004488
Chezzetcook Inlet Nova Scotia Sediment analysis 1,000 Potential storm deposits at 1200 AD, AD 1831 and AD 1848, the middle of which is correlated to a major storm; also an inactive phase in the 1950s and 1970s 44°42′13″N 63°15′30″W / 44.7035527°N 63.2583217°W / 44.7035527; -63.2583217
Cowley Beach Queensland Beach ridges 5,740 Low activity between 1,820 – 850 and 2,580 – 3,230 years ago 17°39′18″S 146°03′35″E / 17.6550966°S 146.0597959°E / -17.6550966; 146.0597959
Croatan National Forest North Carolina Tree rings AD 1771 – 2014 Low activity in 1815–1875 34°58′19″N 77°07′08″W / 34.972°N 77.119°W / 34.972; -77.11934°44′35″N 76°59′06″W / 34.743°N 76.985°W / 34.743; -76.985
Culebrita Puerto Rico Sediment deposits 2,200 Several sand layers may correlate to hurricanes, including one perhaps linked to the 1867 San Narciso hurricane 18°19′14″N 65°14′11″W / 18.32056°N 65.23639°W / 18.32056; -65.23639
Curacoa Island Queensland Beach ridges 6,000 22 hits by intense storms in 6,000 years, implying return periods of 280 years 18°40′12″S 146°32′08″E / 18.6701289°S 146.5354814°E / -18.6701289; 146.5354814
Durban South Africa Submarine deposits Holocene Increased storminess during the early Holocene and during times with strong Indian Ocean Dipole activity 29°54′S 31°00′E / 29.9°S 31.0°E / -29.9; 31.0
Duri Island South Korea Shell-gravel deposits 1,300 Storms in 720 ± 60, 880 ± 110, 950 ± 70, 995 ± 120 and 1535 ± 40, the latter occurring during the Little Ice Age and the others during the Medieval Climate Anomaly 34°20′0″N 126°36′20″E / 34.33333°N 126.60556°E / 34.33333; 126.60556
Eshaness British Isles Boulders perched on cliffs 1,400 Probably not tropical cyclones, but intense storm activity occurred since AD 1950, between 1,300 and 1,900 AD, 700–1,050 AD and 400 – 550 AD 60°30′N 1°30′W / 60.5°N 1.5°W / 60.5; -1.5
Exmouth Gulf Australia, northwestern Washover fans 3,000 Tropical cyclone strikes took place 170 – 180 ± 16, 360 ± 30, 850 – 870 ± 60, 1,290 – 1,300 ± 90, 1,950 – 1,960 ± 90, 2,260 – 2,300 ± 120 and 2,830 – 2,850 ± 120 years ago, consistent with expectations based on sea surface temperature variations 22°15′00″S 114°13′57″E / 22.2499987°S 114.2324904°E / -22.2499987; 114.2324904
Falso Bluff Marsh Nicaragua Sediment deposits 5,400 Last 800 years have an active climate with a return period of about 140–180 years, while between 800 and 2,800 the return period was only once between 600 and 2,100 years and another quiet period between 4,900 – 5,400 years ago; between 2,800 and 4,900 no records 12°6.72′N 83°41.42′W / 12.11200°N 83.69033°W / 12.11200; -83.69033
Folly Island South Carolina Back-barrier marshes 4,600 The last 4,600 years may have seen 27 storms, as well as 11 major storms in the last 3,300 years 32°40′04″N 80°00′02″W / 32.6676908°N 80.0004962°W / 32.6676908; -80.0004962
Frankland Islands Queensland Coastal ridges and coral mortality 510 Active periods are known from 1980 to 2000, 1940–1960, 1860–1880, 1800–1830, 1760–1780, 1700–1720, 1630–1650, 1570–1590 17°13′05″S 146°04′05″E / 17.2180577°S 146.0681264°E / -17.2180577; 146.0681264
France France Tempestites Kimmeridgian Intense tropical cyclone activity from storms coming off the Tethys Inapplicable
Gales Point Belize Sediment cores 5,500 In the last 5,500 years 16 major hurricanes 17°10′N 88°15′W / 17.167°N 88.250°W / 17.167; -88.250
Grand Case St. Martin Sediments 4,280 Active period between 3,700 – 1,800 years ago, while 1,800 –800 years ago was inactive 18°5′N 63°5′W / 18.083°N 63.083°W / 18.083; -63.083
Grape Tree Pond Jamaica Sediments 900-2,011 AD Subdued activity between 900-1350 and after 1950AD during the recent warm periods and Medieval Climate Anomaly, with increased activity during the Little Ice Age 7°53′37″N 76°37′06″W / 7.89361°N 76.61833°W / 7.89361; -76.61833
Great Bahama Bank Bahamas Coarse sediment deposits 7,000 Active periods occurred within the last 50 years, between 1,200 and 500 years ago, 2,400 – 1,800 years ago and 4,600 – 3,800 years ago, with low activity before 4,400 years 25°N 80°W / 25°N 80°W / 25; -80
Great Blue Hole Belize Overwash deposits 1,885 Active periods between 800 and 500, 1,300 – 900 or 650 – 1,200 years ago and coinciding with the Medieval Warm Period 17°18′58″N 87°32′07″W / 17.3160476°N 87.5351438°W / 17.3160476; -87.5351438
Gulf of Carpentaria Australia Beach ridges 7,500 Low activity/intensity between 5,500 and 3,500, 2,700–1,800 and 1,000–500 years ago, the former coinciding with the Neoglacial 14°07′33″S 134°16′35″E / 14.1257239°S 134.2763924°E / -14.1257239; 134.2763924
Gulf of Thailand Thailand Beach ridges and a coastal marsh 8,000 18 typhoon strikes in the last 8,000 years, with increased activity in the mid-Holocene until 3,900 years ago (2–5 times more storms) either due to a warmer climate or higher sea level induced better sensitivity to storms 12°N 100°E / 12°N 100°E / 12; 100
Hainan Island China Deposits in lakes 350 1–2 typhoons per decade, with higher solar activity, positive Pacific Decadal Oscillation, La Nina and positive North Atlantic Oscillation correlating with decreases 18°25′N 110°2′E / 18.417°N 110.033°E / 18.417; 110.033
Hainan Island China Coastal dunes 3,400 8 storms in 1095 ± 90 BC, 900–1000 BC, 975 ± 50 AD, 1720 ± 20 AD, 1740 ± 35 AD, 1790 ± 25 AD, 1850 ± 15 AD, and 1895 ± 10 AD 19°08′59″N 108°48′42″E / 19.1498174°N 108.8116195°E / 19.1498174; 108.8116195
High Atlas Morocco Tempestite Toarcian Increased tropical cyclone activity during the hot Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event Inapplicable
Cay Sal Bank Bahamas Subaqueous sediments 530 On average 18.7-20.6 category 1+ storms per century. 34 storms between 770 to 1870 CE, only 8 between 1916 and 2016 23°52′30″N 79°45′00″W / 23.875°N 79.75°W / 23.875; -79.75
Ilan Plain Taiwan River erosion sediments in a lake 2,000 Between 500 – 700 and after AD 1400 intense typhoon rainfall 24°36′N 121°36′E / 24.600°N 121.600°E / 24.600; 121.600
Israel Israel Oxygen isotope ratios in rocks Cretaceous-Miocene Intense tropical cyclone activity in the Tethys until its closure 20 million years ago Inapplicable
Jiangsu China Tidal flat deposits 2,000 ENSO and ITCZ influences; anticorrelation between Japan/Korea and SE China typhoon activity 33°30′N 121°00′E / 33.5°N 121.0°E / 33.5; 121.0
Kamikoshiki-jima Japan Sediments in coastal lagoons 6,400 Higher typhoon activity at the time of the Kamikaze typhoons, with high activity between 3,600 – 2,500 and between 1,000 – 300 years ago 31°50′N 129°50′E / 31.833°N 129.833°E / 31.833; 129.833
Island Bay Florida Overwash deposits 1,000 3–4 storms in the last 500 years, 1–2 in 150 – 500 years before present and 11 storms between 1,000 – 500 years ago, all probably major hurricanes; one of the storms in the last 50 years is Hurricane Donna while the other might either be 1926 Miami hurricane, 1910 Cuba hurricane or the 1873 Central Florida Hurricane 26°02′44″N 81°48′42″W / 26.0456022°N 81.8116322°W / 26.0456022; -81.8116322
Kimberley Australia Flood deposits in stalagmites 2,200 Moderate activity between 1,450 – 850 AD and low activity between 500 – 850 and 1,450 – 1,650 AD 15°11′S 128°22′E / 15.18°S 128.37°E / -15.18; 128.37
Lady Elliot Island Queensland Beach ridges 3,200 Strong storms (at least Category 4 or Category 5) occur every 253 years 24°06′47″S 152°42′38″E / 24.1131252°S 152.7106403°E / -24.1131252; 152.7106403
Laguna Alejandro Dominican Republic Sediment analysis 910 Strikes c. 910, 800, 730, 530, 500, 330, 260, 210, 200 and 170 years ago 18°18′47″N 71°01′51″W / 18.313097°N 71.030802°W / 18.313097; -71.030802
Laguna Negra Nicaragua Deposits in a coastal lake 8,000 One very strong storm ("Hurricane Elisenda") 3,340 ± 50 years ago, at the same time as increased storm activity in Alabama and Florida 12°2′42.05″N 83°55′39.22″W / 12.0450139°N 83.9275611°W / 12.0450139; -83.9275611
Laguna Madre Texas Storm deposits 3350 BC–AD 1050 0.46% probability of landfall any given year 26°41′05″N 97°32′23″W / 26.6847955°N 97.5397182°W / 26.6847955; -97.5397182
Laguna Playa Grande Puerto Rico Overwash sediments 5,000 0.48% probability of landfall any given year, but an active period in the last 250 years and previous active periods between 2,500 – 1,000 and 3,600 – 5,400 years ago. El Nino is linked with lower activity, a strong West African Monsoon with higher activity 18°05′N 65°31′W / 18.09°N 65.52°W / 18.09; -65.52
Lake Daija Japan Sediments in a coastal lagoon 2,000 Beginning at 250 AD increased activity, while a quiet period has lasted from 1600 AD to today. Typhoon Jean, Typhoon Grace and others have been identified, including two deposits that may correlate to the Kamikaze typhoons which also coincide within an active period. Recorded storms appear to be of category 3 or higher strength 32°14′N 129°59′E / 32.24°N 129.98°E / 32.24; 129.98
Lake Shelby Alabama Storm deposits 4,800 11 intense storms between 3,500 and 700 years ago, a quiet period before 3,200 radiocarbon years ago may be either a stage of inactivity or a change in the lake environment. Comparisons to Hurricane Frederic and Hurricane Ivan imply that the intense storms reached category 4 or 5 intensity 30°15′N 87°40′W / 30.250°N 87.667°W / 30.250; -87.667
Lake Tiriara Cook Islands Minerals from simultaneous seawater intrusion and island erosion 3,500 Two storms between 3,200 – 2,800 and 200 years ago 21°57′S 157°57′W / 21.950°S 157.950°W / -21.950; -157.950
Lantau Island Hong Kong Marine sediments 1,200 Increased storm intensity during the Medieval Warm Period, with more but possibly weaker storms during the Little Ice Age and an increase in storm intensity after it 22°07′N 113°32′E / 22.12°N 113.53°E / 22.12; 113.53
Lingyang Reef South China Sea Storm deposits 3,500 Between 3,100 – 1,800 years ago only weak activity, followed and preceded by strong activity; intense storms about once every ten years in the last 3,500 years and the storm activity correlates to sea surface temperatures 16°28′N 111°35′E / 16.467°N 111.583°E / 16.467; 111.583
Little Lake Alabama Overwash deposits 1,200 Seven strikes in 1,200 years, including Hurricane Ivan 30°16.38′N 87°36.92′W / 30.27300°N 87.61533°W / 30.27300; -87.61533
Little Sippewissett Marsh Massachusetts Overwash deposits 400 Annual landfall probability is about 2.3%, 4% in the last 50 years 41°30′N 71°30′W / 41.500°N 71.500°W / 41.500; -71.500
Long Island New York Overwash deposits 3,500 Increased activity during the Little Ice Age and an inactive period between 900 and 250 years ago 40°35′N 73°36′W / 40.59°N 73.6°W / 40.59; -73.6
Long Island blue hole Bahamas Deposits in blue holes 1,050 Active between 1,245–1,290, 1,395–1,500, 1,590–1,650 and 1,775–1,845 AD in particular the most recent period. Inactive during 1,161–1,213, 1,528–1,585, 1,651–1,713, 1,877–1,927 and 1,933–2,003 AD 23°15′54″N 75°07′01″W / 23.265°N 75.117°W / 23.265; -75.117
Lower Mystic Lake Massachusetts Varves formed by post-storm sedimentation 1000 Up to eight Category 2–3 hurricanes occurred per century in the 12th to 16th century, while the preceding and the two subsequent ones only saw 2–3 such storms per century 42°25.60′N 71°8.8′W / 42.42667°N 71.1467°W / 42.42667; -71.1467
Manatee Bay Jamaica Multideposits 1,200 Four overwash deposits, one of which probably from a tsunami and the most recent one from Hurricane Ivan and Hurricane Dean 17°50′36″N 76°59′10″W / 17.8432086°N 76.9861149°W / 17.8432086; -76.9861149Google (23 December 2020). "Manatee Bay" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
Mangrove Lake Bermuda Lagoon deposits 1,600 years Increased activity between 1,200 - 1,800 AD
Mattapoisett Marsh Massachusetts Storm inundation deposits 2,200 Inactive period between 2,200 and 1,000 followed by an active period in the last 800 years 41°30′N 71°00′W / 41.5°N 71°W / 41.5; -71
Miaodao China Storm deposits 80,000 Marine isotope stage 5e storm frequency comparable to that of Holocene low-latitude China 37°56′31.9″N 120°40′35.9″E / 37.942194°N 120.676639°E / 37.942194; 120.676639
Middle Caicos Island Turks and Caicos Islands Sediments Past 1,520 years Maximum activity between 1,550-1,900 with 8 events/century. Active periods in 690-760, 960-1,100, 1,550-1,900 and inactive ones in 98-595, 618-690, 758-813, 831-901, 1,444-1,514 and 1,961-2,017 AD 21°43′N 71°49′W / 21.72°N 71.81°W / 21.72; -71.81
Mullet Pond Florida Sediments in a sinkhole 4,500 Active periods with intense storms 650 – 750 years ago, 925 – 875 years ago, 1,250 – 1,150 years ago, 2,800 – 2,300 years ago, 3,350 – 3,250 years ago, 3,600 – 3,500 years ago and 3,950 – 3,650 years ago; the maximum occurrence rate between 2,300 and 2,800 years ago saw six storms per century while the last 150 years have been fairly inactive. Mullet Pond records also somewhat weaker storms and shows a recurrence rate of 3.9 events per century. 30°00′N 84°30′W / 30°N 84.5°W / 30; -84.5
Onslow Bay North Carolina Backbarrier deposits 1,500 Poor preservation; only 5–8 deposits in 1,500 years 34°N 77°W / 34°N 77°W / 34; -77
Oyster Pond Massachusetts Sand layers in organic deposits 1,250 One of the earliest paleotempestological records; nine sand layers were interpreted as evidence for hurricanes 41°40′44″N 69°58′37″W / 41.6789627°N 69.977068°W / 41.6789627; -69.977068
Pascagoula Marsh Louisiana Sediments 4,500 (radiocarbon years) Storms occur about all 300 years; hyperactive period between 3,800 and 1,000 years ago 30°21′45″N 88°37′25″W / 30.3624983°N 88.6235212°W / 30.3624983; -88.6235212
Pearl River Marsh Louisiana Sediments 4,500 (radiocarbon years) Storms occur about all 300 years; hyperactive period between 3,800 and 1,000 years ago
Pinqing Lagoon Guangdong Province, China Sediments 1,850 CE - present Seven typhoons in 130 years 22°46′N 115°24′E / 22.77°N 115.4°E / 22.77; 115.4
Playa Los Cocos Baja California Sur, Mexico Sediments One tsunami 530 BP and hurricanes 770, 600, 280 and 0 (Hurricane Olivia most likely) BP 26°27′N 111°33′W / 26.45°N 111.55°W / 26.45; -111.55
Princess Charlotte Bay Queensland, Australia Beach ridges 3,000 12 hits by intense storms in 6,000 years, implying return periods of 180 years 14°25′00″S 143°58′57″E / 14.4166658°S 143.9824904°E / -14.4166658; 143.9824904
Chillagoe Queensland Stalagmites 800 2 strong storms between AD 1400 – 1600 after two centuries without one, seven strong storms between AD 1600 and AD 1800 and only one strong storm after that 17°12′S 144°36′E / 17.2°S 144.6°E / -17.2; 144.6
Robinson Lake Nova Scotia Sediments in lake 800 Storms at c. 1475, 1530, 1575, 1670 and Hurricane Juan. The record probably reflects storms of at least category 2 44°39.114′N 63°16.631′W / 44.651900°N 63.277183°W / 44.651900; -63.277183
Rockingham Bay Queensland Sand ridges 5,000 Intense storms occurred between 130 and 1,550 years ago as well as between 3,380 – 5,010 years ago, while the time between 1,550 – 2,280 years ago had very weak storms 18°02′S 146°3′E / 18.033°S 146.050°E / -18.033; 146.050
Salt Pond Massachusetts Sediments in a lake 2,000 35 hurricanes with active periods between 150 -1,150 AD and 1,400 – 1,675 AD; one historical hurricane (Hurricane Bob) recorded; some storms are stronger than the most intense hurricane there, the Great Colonial Hurricane of 1635
San Salvador Island Bahamas Lake sediments 4,000 Increased storm activity between 3,400 and 1,000 years ago. Recurrence rate of strong hurricanes appears to be much less than the historical rate, which may be due to measurement issues 24°05′N 74°30′W / 24.083°N 74.500°W / 24.083; -74.500
Santiago de Cuba Cuba Deposits in a coastal lagoon 4,000 Active periods occurred between 2,600 – 1,800 years ago and between 500 and 250 years ago 19°56′55″N 76°32′22″W / 19.9486°N 76.5395°W / 19.9486; -76.5395
Scarborough Shoal South China Sea Coral boulders Northward migration of typhoon activity during the recent warm period 15°09′18″N 117°39′00″E / 15.155°N 117.65°E / 15.155; 117.65
Scrub Island Anguilla Lagoon deposits 1,600 Two tsunami deposits, one of which linked to the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. Of the 23 remaining deposits most likely linked to hurricanes, one probably belongs to Hurricane Dog in 1950 and another to an unnamed hurricane in 1923. Increased activity in 445–525, 720–835, 1080–1230, 1625–1695, 1745–1890 and 1920–1970 including the Medieval Warm Period and decreased activity in 560, ~670, 965–1020,1400–1600, ~1740 cal. CE. 18°20′N 63°00′W / 18.333°N 63.000°W / 18.333; -63.000
Sea Breeze New Jersey Sediments AD 214 – present Storm deposits were emplaced between AD1875-1925, before AD1827, before AD1665-1696, in the 14th–15th century, before AD950-1040, AD429-966 and before AD260-520 39°19′N 75°19′W / 39.317°N 75.317°W / 39.317; -75.317
Seoraksan National Park South Korea Tree rings AS 1,652 - 2,005 Decreasing landfalling storms after volcanic eruptions. High activity between 1993 and 1997 38°10′N 128°20′E / 38.167°N 128.333°E / 38.167; 128.333
Seguine Pond New York Overwash deposits 300 Severe storm surges associated with the 1821 Norfolk and Long Island hurricane and Hurricane Sandy 40°33′52″N 74°17′13″W / 40.564521°N 74.2869025°W / 40.564521; -74.2869025
Shark Bay Western Australia Shell beach ridge 6,000 An inactive period between about 5,400 and 3,700 years ago accompanied by drought. Storm intensity indicated by the ridges is about category 2–4 on the Saffir-Simpson scale, while no case of category 5 is inferred 26°30′S 113°36′E / 26.5°S 113.6°E / -26.5; 113.6
Shark River Slough Florida Sediment cores 4,600 Decrease of storm activity after 2,800 years ago 25°39′21″N 80°42′37″W / 25.6559369°N 80.7103492°W / 25.6559369; -80.7103492
Shark River Slough Florida Sediment cores 3,500 Active periods 3,400–3,000, 2,200–1,500, 1,000–800, 600–300, and ~150–0 years ago 25°21′10″N 81°6′52″W / 25.35278°N 81.11444°W / 25.35278; -81.11444
Shinnecock Bay New York Sediments Older than 1938AD Several historical deposits by the 1938 New England hurricane, Hurricane Carol, either Hurricane Donna or Hurricane Esther and the Ash Wednesday Storm of 1962 40°50′N 72°32′W / 40.83°N 72.53°W / 40.83; -72.53
Shotgun Pond Florida Overwash and inundation deposits 2,000 Higher activity than the historical period 650–1000, 1100–1300, 1350–1450, and 1750–1850 AD, and lower activity than today 450–650, 1000–1100, 1300–1350, and 1500–1750 AD; Hurricane Michael in 2018 left a deposit 29°55′54″N 84°21′18″W / 29.9316°N 84.355°W / 29.9316; -84.355
Singleton Swash South Carolina Sediments in tidal deposits 3,500 Historical storms like Hurricane Hazel and Hurricane Hugo are recorded, with more storms until 1050 BC. Between 3050 and 1050 BC there are no storm deposits, but one deposit dating to 3750 BC appears to relate to a very intense event, perhaps due to a warmer climate at that time 33°45′20″N 78°48′43″W / 33.7554485°N 78.8119756°W / 33.7554485; -78.8119756
Silver Slipper West Mississippi Overwash deposits and microfossils 2,500 Deposits from Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Camille are present and serve as modern analogues to reconstruct storm surge height for stormy intervals between 350 BC–AD 50 and AD 1050–1350. The decline in activity after AD 1350 coincides with a southward shift in the mean position of the Loop Current 30°15′06″N 89°25′41″W / 30.251649°N 89.427932°W / 30.251649; -89.427932
South Andros Island Bahamas Deposits in blue holes 1,500 Mainly intense tropical cyclones recorded, including unnamed 1919 and 1945 Category 3 hurricanes although a weaker storm in 1945 might have also contributed. In general there are phases of high and low activity associated with phase changes of the ITCZ volcanic activity and the Little Ice Age 23°47′N 77°41′W / 23.78°N 77.69°W / 23.78; -77.69
St. Catherines Island Georgia Sediment cores +3,000 7 storms in 3,300 years, equating a recurrence rate of 1 every 471 years. An active period ended 1,100 years before present 31°37′41″N 81°13′43″W / 31.6279865°N 81.2284741°W / 31.6279865; -81.2284741
Spring Creek Pond Florida Storm layers 4,500 An active period between about 600 and 1,700 years ago, but fewer major hurricanes in the last 600 years 30°00′N 84°30′W / 30°N 84.5°W / 30; -84.5
Succotash Marsh Rhode Island Sediment overwash 700 years Over 6 intense storms in the last 700 years 41°22′47″N 71°31′16″W / 41.37972°N 71.52111°W / 41.37972; -71.52111
Tahaa French Polynesia Overwash deposits 5,000 Increased activity between 5,000 – 3,800 and 2,900 – 500 years ago with relative inactivity since 16°37′51″S 151°33′43″W / 16.6308026°S 151.5620333°W / -16.6308026; -151.5620333
Thatchpoint Bluehole Bahamas Sediments AD 1010–present Recorded storms include Hurricane Jeanne in 2004; active periods between 1050 and 1150 AD, a very active period between 1350-1650AD, a reincrease in the late 18th century 26°19.408′N 77°17.590′W / 26.323467°N 77.293167°W / 26.323467; -77.293167
Tutaga Tuvalu Coral blocks moved by storms 1,100 Increased storminess c. 1,100, 750, 600 and 350 years ago; correlated with storminess in French Polynesia and a recurrence rate of about 100–150 years 8°32′S 179°5′E / 8.533°S 179.083°E / -8.533; 179.083
Tzabnah Cave Yucatan Oxygen isotope ratios in stalagmites AD 750 and earlier Low tropical cyclone activity at the time of the Classical Maya collapse, and more generally coinciding with drought 20°45′N 89°28′W / 20.750°N 89.467°W / 20.750; -89.467
Valdosta State University Georgia Oxygen isotope ratios in tree rings AD 1770 – 1990 Historical storms have been recorded, as well as a trio in 1911–1913 and a strong event in 1780 30°50′56″N 83°17′21″W / 30.8489491°N 83.2892064°W / 30.8489491; -83.2892064
Wallaby Island Australia Beach ridges 4,100 Strong storms (category 5) occur every 180 years
Walsingham Cavern Bermuda Sediments in submarine cave 3,100 Increased storm activity between 3,000 – 1,700 and 600 – 150 years ago; however this record might include extratropical storms 32°20′N 64°40′W / 32.333°N 64.667°W / 32.333; -64.667
Wassaw Island Georgia Overwash 1,900 At least eight deposits from strong hurricanes between 1,000 – 2,000 years ago, with a quiet period between 1,100 and 250 years ago 31°54′20″N 80°59′49″W / 31.9054647°N 80.996943°W / 31.9054647; -80.996943
Western Lake Florida, northwestern Overwash deposits 7,000 Between 3,800 – 1,000 years ago strike probability was about 0.5% per year, followed and preceded by relative inactivity 30°19′31″N 86°9′12″W / 30.32528°N 86.15333°W / 30.32528; -86.15333
Whale Beach New Jersey Sand sheets in marshes AD 1300–present Two major hurricanes in 700 years, one between 1278–1438 and the other is the 1821 Norfolk and Long Island hurricane 39°11′00″N 74°40′17″W / 39.18333°N 74.67139°W / 39.18333; -74.67139
Wonga Beach Queensland, northern Beach ridges 4,500 An inactive period between about 3,800 and 2,100 years ago was followed by an active on between 2,100 and 900 years ago 16°25′23″S 145°25′8″E / 16.42306°S 145.41889°E / -16.42306; 145.41889
Xincun Bay China, southern Lagoonal sediments 7,500 Seven storm periods in the last 7,500 years, including active periods between 5,500 and 3,500 and from 1,700 years ago onwards, with inactive period in between; there are also (in)active periods embedded within these active(inactive) ones and there is more generally a correlation to storm activity elsewhere in southern China and to ENSO variations 18°25′N 110°0′E / 18.417°N 110.000°E / 18.417; 110.000
Yok Balum Cave Belize Oxygen isotope ratios in speleothems AD 1550 – 1983 After an inactive phase (~1 storm/year) in the middle 16th century, an increase to ~8 storms/year in the 17th century associated with the Little Ice Age. Then a steady decrease until 1870, when occurrence halved and dropped to ~2 storms/year 16°12′30.780″N 89°4′24.420″W / 16.20855000°N 89.07345000°W / 16.20855000; -89.07345000
Yongshu Reef South China Sea Coral blocks relocated by storms 4,000 Six strikes in 1,000 years, with two during the Little Ice Age and four during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Also high storm activity around 1200 AD, 400 BC and 1200 BC 9°37′N 112°58′E / 9.617°N 112.967°E / 9.617; 112.967
Zhejiang-Fujian mud belt East China Sea Marine sediment cores 2,000 Increased activity between 0–480 CE, 790–1230 CE, and 1940–2018 CE 28°41′N 122°25′E / 28.69°N 122.41°E / 28.69; 122.41

Non-tropical examples

Place Country/state Data sources Record duration in years before present Conclusions Sources Approximate coordinates
Île d'Yeu France High-energy sedimentation 8,000 Between around 5720–5520 BC and 5050 BC–AD 360, storm activity was less meaningful. Increased storminess occurred AD 1350–1450, 150 BC–year 0, 900–400 BC, 1550–1320 BC, 3450–3420 BC, and 4700–4560 BC. 46°42′32″N 2°21′35″W / 46.7089013°N 2.35959579529°W / 46.7089013; -2.35959579529
Pierre Blanche and Prevost lagoons France Overwash deposits 1,500 Four intense storms in the last 1,500 years 43°32′N 3°54′E / 43.53°N 3.9°E / 43.53; 3.9

See also

Notes


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