Lumbricals of the foot

Lumbrical muscle of the foot
Muscles of the sole of the right foot, viewed from below. Second layer. (Lumbricals visible at bottom.)
Details
OriginMedial borders of long flexor tendons
InsertionProximal phalanges and extensor tendons of the 4 lateral toes
ArteryMedial and Lateral plantar arteries
Nervemedial and lateral plantar nerves (S3)
ActionsFlexes metatarsophalangeal joints, extends interphalangeal joints
Identifiers
Latinmusculus lumbricalis pedis
TA98A04.7.02.069
TA22685
FMA37453
Anatomical terms of muscle

The lumbricals are four small skeletal muscles, accessory to the tendons of the flexor digitorum longus muscle. They are numbered from the medial side of the foot.

Structure

The lumbricals arise from the tendons of the flexor digitorum longus muscle, as far back as their angles of division, each springing from two tendons, except the first. The first lumbrical is unipennate, while the second, third and fourth are bipennate.

The muscles end in tendons, which pass forward on the medial sides of the four lesser toes, and are inserted into the expansions of the tendons of the extensor digitorum longus muscle on the dorsal surfaces of the proximal phalanges. All four lumbricals insert into extensor hoods of the phalanges, thus creating extension at the inter-phalangeal (PIP and DIP) joints. However, as the tendons also pass inferior to the metatarsal phalangeal (MTP) joints it creates flexion at this joint.

Innervation

The most medial lumbrical is innervated by the medial plantar nerve while the remaining three lumbricals are supplied by the lateral plantar nerve.

Variation

Absence of one or more; doubling of the third or fourth even the fifth. Insertion partly or wholly into the first phalanges.

History

The term "lumbrical" comes from the Latin, meaning "worm".

Additional images



This page was last updated at 2024-01-26 06:19 UTC. Update now. View original page.

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