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Ornithocheiroidea

Ornithocheiroids
Temporal range: Early - Late Cretaceous,
~140–66 Ma Possible Late Jurassic record
Thalassodromeus in Japan.jpg
Restored skeleton of Thalassodromeus sethi, with Anhanguera behind
Tropeognathus mesembrinus MN 01.jpg
Skeletal cast of Tropeognathus mesembrinus in the National Museum of Brazil
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Order: Pterosauria
Suborder: Pterodactyloidea
Infraorder: Eupterodactyloidea
Clade: Ornithocheiroidea
Seeley, 1870
Subgroups

Ornithocheiroidea (or ornithocheiroids) is a group of pterosaurs within the extinct suborder Pterodactyloidea. They were typically large pterosaurs that lived from the Early to Late Cretaceous periods (Valanginian to Maastrichtian stages), with fossil remains found all over the world except Antarctica.

Ornithocheiroids were the most advanced group of pterosaurs, as the group includes the clade Azhdarchoidea, of which its members lived until the Maastrichtian stage of the Late Cretaceous, around 66 million years ago. Notable pterosaurs from this group include the pteranodontians Pteranodon and Nyctosaurus, the ornithocheirid Ornithocheirus, the anhanguerid Tropeognathus, as well as the azhdarchids Hatzegopteryx and Quetzalcoatlus.

Classification

The name Ornithocheiroidea was originally defined as an apomorphy-based taxon by Christopher Bennett in 1994. It was given a relationship-based definition in 2003 by Alexander Kellner, who defined it as the least inclusive clade containing Anhanguera blittersdorffi, Pteranodon longiceps, Dsungaripterus weii, and Quetzalcoatlus northropi. Later that year, David Unwin suggested a more restrictive definition, in which the clade only contains Pteranodon longiceps, Istiodactylus latidens, and their descentants. Brian Andres (2008, 2010, 2014) in his analyses, defined Ornithocheiroidea using the definition of Kellner (2003) to avoid confusion with similarly-defined groups, like Pteranodontoidea.

Below is a cladogram showing the results of a phylogenetic analysis presented by Longrich and colleagues in 2018. They found Ornithocheiroidea to consist of the clades Pteranodontoidea and Azhdarchoidea, as well as the genus Piksi.

Eupterodactyloidea

Haopterus gracilis

Ornithocheiroidea

Piksi barbarulna

Pteranodontoidea
Pteranodontia
Pteranodontidae

Tethydraco regalis

Pteranodon longicepsPteranodon longiceps mmartyniuk wiki.png

Pteranodon sternbergi

Nyctosauridae

Alamodactylus byrdi

Volgadraco bogolubovi

Cretornis hlavaci

Alcione elainus

Simurghia robusta

Muzquizopteryx coahuilensis

Barbaridactylus grandis

Nyctosaurus lamegoi

Nyctosaurus nanus

Nyctosaurus gracilisNyctosaurus DB.jpg

Ornithocheiromorpha

Hongshanopterus lacustris

Lonchodectidae

Lonchodraco giganteus

Lonchodectes compressirostris

Boreopteridae

Boreopterus cuiae

Zhenyuanopterus longirostris

Lanceodontia
Istiodactylidae

Nurhachius ignaciobritoi

Liaoxipterus brachyognathus

Istiodactylus sinensis

Istiodactylus latidens

Aetodactylus halli

Cimoliopterus dunni

Cimoliopterus cuvieri

Anhangueria

Guidraco

LudodactylusLudodactylus.jpg

Cearadactylus

Brasileodactylus

Ornithocheirae

AnhangueridaeLiaoningopterusDB flipped.jpg

Ornithocheiridae

Azhdarchoidea
Tapejaromorpha

Bennettazhia oregonensis

Tapejaridae
Tapejarinae

Tapejara wellnhoferi

Europejara olcadesorum

Vectidraco daisymorrisae

Caiuajara dobruskii

Tupandactylus navigans

Tupandactylus imperatorTapimpDB.jpg

Bakonydraco galacziBakonydraco as tapejarid DB.jpg

"Huaxiapterus" benxiensis

"Huaxiapterus" corollatus

Eopteranodon lii

Huaxiapterus jii

Sinopterus dongi

Neoazhdarchia
Dsungaripteromorpha
Dsungaripteridae
Dsungaripterinae

Dsungaripterus weii

Domeykodactylus ceciliaeDomeykodactylus.jpg

Noripterinae

Noripterus parvus

Noripterus complicidens

Thalassodromidae

Tupuxuara longicristatusTupux longDB2.jpg

Tupuxuara leonardii

Thalassodromeus sethi

Alanqa saharica

Aerotitan sudamericanusAerotitan.jpg

Neopterodactyloidea
Chaoyangopteridae

Microtuban altivolans

Chaoyangopterinae

Shenzhoupterus

Chaoyangopterus

Jidapterus

Eoazhdarcho liaoxiensis

Radiodactylus langstoni

Azhdarchidae

Montanazhdarcho minor

Azhdarcho lancicollis

Phosphatodraco mauritanicusPhosphatodraco.jpg

Aralazhdarcho bostobensis

Eurazhdarcho langendorfensis

aff. Quetzalcoatlus

Zhejiangopterus linhaiensis

Arambourgiania philadelphiae

Hatzegopteryx thambema

Quetzalcoatlus spp.Quetzalcoatlus07.jpg

In 2019, a phylogenetic analysis conducted by Kellner and colleagues had recovered Ornithocheiroidea as the sister taxon of the Archaeopterodactyloidea, and consisting of the clades Tapejaroidea and Pteranodontoidea. Several recent studies have followed this or a similar concept. The cladogram of the analysis by Kellner and colleagues is presented below:

Pterodactyloidea

ArchaeopterodactyloideaPterodactylus BMMS7 life.png

Ornithocheiroidea
Pteranodontoidea
Pteranodontia
Pteranodontidae

Pteranodon longicepsPteranodon longiceps mmartyniuk wiki.png

Tethydraco regalis

Nyctosauridae

Nyctosaurus gracilisNyctosaurus DB.jpg

Muzquizopteryx coahuilensis

Lanceodontia

Hongshanopterus lacustris

Istiodactylidae

Nurhachius ignaciobritoi

Istiodactylinae

Istiodactylus latidens

Istiodactylus sinensis

Haopterus gracilis

Lonchodraco giganteus

Ikrandraco avatar

Ornithocheirae

Ornithocheirus simusOrnithocheirus BW.jpg

Cimoliopterus cuvieri

Anhangueria

Camposipterus sedgwickii

Hamipteridae

Hamipterus tianshanensis

Iberodactylus andreui

Anhangueridae

Tropeognathus mesembrinus

Coloborhynchinae

Coloborhynchus clavirostris

Uktenadactylus wadleighi

Anhanguerinae

Caulkicephalus trimicrodon

Guidraco venator

Ludodactylus sibbickiLudodactylus.jpg

Liaoningopterus guiLiaoningopterusDB flipped.jpg

Cearadactylus atrox

Maaradactylus kellneri

AMNH 22555

Anhanguera blittersdorffi

Anhanguera piscator

Tapejaroidea
Dsungaripteridae

Dsungaripterus weii

Noripterus parvus

Azhdarchoidea
Azhdarchidae

Azhdarcho lancicollis

Quetzalcoatlus sp.Quetzalcoatlus07.jpg

Zhejiangopterus linhaiensis

Chaoyangopteridae

Chaoyangopterus zhangi

Jidapterus edentus

Shenzhoupterus chaoyangensis

Tapejaromorpha

Keresdrakon vilsoni

Tapejaridae
Thalassodrominae

Thalassodromeus sethi

Tupuxuara leonardii

Tapejarinae

Caupedactylus ybaka

Aymberedactylus cearensis

Eopteranodon lii

"Huaxiapterus" benxiensis

"Huaxiapterus" corollatus

Sinopterus dongi

Tapejarini

Europejara olcadesorum

Caiuajara dobruskii

Tapejara wellnhoferi

Tupandactylus imperatorTapimpDB.jpg


This page was last updated at 2022-05-27 12:46 UTC. Update now. View original page.

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