Hindbrain (Redirected from Rhombencephalon)

Hindbrain
EmbryonicBrain.svg
Diagram depicting the main subdivisions of the embryonic vertebrate brain. These regions will later differentiate into forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain structures.
Gray708.svg
Scheme of the roof of the fourth ventricle.
Identifiers
MeSHD012249
NeuroNames540
NeuroLex IDbirnlex_942
TA98A14.1.03.002
FMA67687
Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy

The hindbrain or rhombencephalon or lower brain is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system in vertebrates. It includes the medulla, pons, and cerebellum. Together they support vital bodily processes.

Metencephalon

Rhombomeres Rh3-Rh1 form the metencephalon.

The metencephalon is composed of the pons and the cerebellum; it contains:

Myelencephalon

Rhombomeres Rh8-Rh4 form the myelencephalon.

The myelencephalon forms the medulla oblongata in the adult brain; it contains:

Evolution

The hindbrain is homologous to a part of the arthropod brain known as the sub-oesophageal ganglion, in terms of the genes that it expresses and its position in between the brain and the nerve cord. It has been suggested that the hindbrain first evolved in the Urbilaterian—the last common ancestor of chordates and arthropods—between 570 and 555 million years ago.

Hindbrain diseases

A rare brain disease of the cerebellum is rhombencephalosynapsis characterized by an absent or partially formed vermis. Symptoms can include truncal ataxia. The disorder is a main feature of Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome.


This page was last updated at 2022-10-04 11:21 UTC. Update now. View original page.

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