Tanystropheidae

Tanystropheidae
Temporal range: Triassic, 247.2–201 Ma
Skeletal reconstruction of Tanystropheus longobardicus
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Clade: Archosauromorpha
Family: Tanystropheidae
Gervais, 1858
Genera

See text

Tanystropheidae is an extinct family of mostly marine archosauromorph reptiles that lived throughout the Triassic Period, often considered to be "protorosaurs". They are characterized by their long, stiff necks formed from elongated cervical vertebrae with very long cervical ribs. Some tanystropheids such as Tanystropheus had necks that were several meters long, longer than the rest of their bodies.

Tanystropheids are known from Europe, Asia (Russia, China, and Saudi Arabia), North America and probably South America (Brazil). The presence of tanystropheids in Europe and China indicate that they lived along much of the coastline of the Tethys Ocean. However, species in western North America are found in terrestrial deposits, suggesting that as a group, tanystropheids were ecologically diverse.

Relationships among tanystropheid species have been difficult to resolve because most specimens were flattened during fossilization and are preserved two-dimensionally. Three-dimensional fossils are known from Europe and North America.

Phylogeny

In 2021, a phylogenetic study was conducted by S. Spiekman, N. Fraser, and T. Scheyer in an attempt to clarify the systematics of "protorosaur" groups. A total of 16 individual trees were found using different character scoring methods and unstable OTU exclusions. The following cladogram shows the results of analysis 3A. In this analysis, ratio and ordered characters are treated as such, and 5 out of 40 OTUs (Macrocnemus obristi, Elessaurus gondwanoccidens, Tanytrachelos ahynis, Tanystropheus “conspicuus”, and Raibliania calligarisi) are pruned after the analysis to minimize polytomies:

Archosauromorpha

Jesairosaurus

Protorosaurus

Prolacerta

Czatkowiella

Sharovipterygidae (Ozimek volans)

Fuyuansaurus

Dinocephalosauridae

Protanystropheus

Pectodens

Dinocephalosaurus

Tanystropheidae

Macrocnemus bassanii

Macrocnemus fuyuanensis

Augustaburiania

Amotosaurus

Langobardisaurus

AMNH FARB 7206

Sclerostropheus

Tanystropheus hydroides

GMPKU P 1527 T. cf. hydroides

Tanystropheus longobardicus

Crocopoda

Allokotosauria

Rhynchosauria

Teyujagua

Archosauriformes

List of genera



This page was last updated at 2024-01-11 15:51 UTC. Update now. View original page.

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