Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt

Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt
943 BC–716 BC
Pendant bearing the cartouche of Osorkon II seated Osiris flanked by Horus and Isis
Pendant bearing the cartouche of Osorkon II
seated Osiris flanked by Horus and Isis
CapitalBubastis, Tanis
Common languagesEgyptian language
Religion Ancient Egyptian Religion
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
Historical eraClassical antiquity
• Established
943 BC
• Disestablished
716 BC
Preceded by Succeeded by
Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt

The Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt is also known as the Bubastite Dynasty, since the pharaohs originally ruled from the city of Bubastis. It was founded by Shoshenq I.

The Twenty-first, Twenty-second, Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth, and Twenty-fifth dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group designation of the Third Intermediate Period.

Rulers

The pharaohs of the Twenty-second Dynasty were a series of Meshwesh (ancient Libyan tribe) chieftains, who ruled from c. 943 BC until 716 BC. They had settled in Egypt since the Twentieth Dynasty and were known in Egypt as the 'Great Chiefs of the Ma' (Ma being a synonym of Meshwesh). Manetho states that this Egyptianized ancient Libyan dynasty first ruled over Bubastis, but its rulers almost certainly governed from Tanis, which was their capital and the city where their tombs have been excavated.

Another pharaoh who belongs to this group is Tutkheperre Shoshenq. His period of rule within this dynasty is currently uncertain, although he is now thought to have governed Egypt early in the 9th century BC for a short time between Osorkon I and Takelot I. The next ruler at Tanis after Shoshenq V was Osorkon IV. This pharaoh is sometimes not believed to be a member of the 22nd Dynasty since he only controlled a small portion of Lower Egypt together with Tefnakhte of Sais, whose authority was recognised at Memphis—and Iuput II of Leontopolis.

Pharaohs

The known rulers during the Twenty-second Dynasty include:

Dynasty XXII Kings of Egypt
Pharaoh Image Prenomen (Throne name) Horus-name Reign Consort(s) Comments
Shoshenq I
Hedjkheperre-Setepenre Kanakhtmeryre Sekhaefemnesuersematawy 943–922 BC Patareshnes
Karomama A
Possibly to be identified with the biblical Shishak
Osorkon I
Sekhemkheperre-Setepenre Kanakhtmeryre Redjensuitemuhernesetefergeregtawy 922–887 BC Maatkare B
Tashedkhonsu
Shepensopdet A
Shoshenq II
Heqakheperre-Setepenre (unknown) 887–885 BC Nesitanebetashru
Nesitaudjatakhet
Enjoyed an independent reign of two years at Tanis according to Von Beckerath
Takelot I
Hedjkheperre-Setepenre (unknown) 885–872 BC Kapes
Osorkon II
Usermaatre-Setepenamun Kanakhtmerymaat 872–837 BC Isetemkheb G
Karomama B
Djedmutesankh
Possibly one of the twelve kings who formed an alliance to fight Shalmaneser III of Assyria at the battle of Qarqar in 853 BC.
Shoshenq III
Usermaatre-Setepenre Kanakhtmesutre 837–798 BC Tadibast II
Tentamenopet
Djedbastiusankh
Shoshenq IV
Hedjkheperre-Setepenre (unknown) 798–785 BC Not to be confused with Shoshenq VI; the original Shoshenq IV in publications before 1993
Pami
Usermaatre-Setepenamun (unknown) 785–778 BC Buried two Apis bulls in his reign
Shoshenq V
Akheperre Userpehty 767–730 BC Tadibast III? Successor of Shoshenq V was often stated as Osorkon IV;some say it is Pedubast II
Pedubast II
Sehetepibenre (unknown) 743–733 BC Tadibast III? Not mentioned in all Pharaoh lists, placement disputed
Osorkon IV
Usermaatre (unknown) 730–716 BC Not always listed as a true member of the XXII Dynasty, but succeeded Shoshenq V at Tanis. Perhaps the biblical Pharaoh So (2 Kings 17:4).

Twenty-Third Dynasty

The so-called Twenty-Third Dynasty was an offshoot of this dynasty perhaps based in Upper Egypt, though there is much debate concerning this issue. All of its kings reigned in Middle and Upper Egypt including the Western Desert Oases.

See also


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